research papers on gender inequality

research papers on gender inequality

Gender Inequality In Modern Society

This study deals with gender inequality in the modern society and looks at the difficulties women face when they strive for equal success as their male counterparts. About seventy-five percent of the jobs in well-paid professions are held by men and even if women are able to get equal jobs they are still paid considerably less . The central question posed is, are there any differences in the aspirations and career goals between males and females? However, in order to fully understand stereotypical social values about sex-roles in our society, an analysis of the broader context, in terms of the findings of the research of experts in the field, is needed. Thus, this Literature Review discusses the research on gender discrimination in the modern society as well as what drives women into the workforce.

Joanne Naiman, Professor of Sociology at Ryerson Polytechnic University, who has written extensively on how the gender roles change in Canadian society, argues that “historically sociologists have suggested, amongst various other reasons that biological differences between men and women constitute as one of the main reasons for males having better job opportunities. Thus males were always branded the breadwinners of the family whilst a female’s place was at home” . Studies by Joanne Naiman have shown that “during the latter half of the 20th century these views began to slowly change but still stained with the ideologies from the past they still exist at the brink of the 21st century”.

The Term Paper on Men And Women Gender Jobs Work

. and power would disappear. As long as society continues to construct gender into either, a) male, or b) female, the problem at hand . is that men must occupy more of the jobs with status than women do. Clerical jobs usually fall underneath some sort of management . been more powerful than women and that is why men occupy more powerful jobs within a company (Brym, 1998). Society's message is .

Lawrence Pervin, Professor of Psychology at the Princeton University contends that “up until 1954 researchers tended to ignore female workers as subjects of their research. From 1954 to 1966 sex-role measures developed. From 1974 to 1982 androgyny was established as sex-role ideal” . Another psychologist and prolific writer, Carol Gilligan stated that “as far as management motivation is concerned most of the recent studies show that there is very little difference in the aspirations and goals between males and females” . A number of researchers agree that historically males have shaped the society in which we live. The policy-makers have almost always been male and therefore it is not surprising that our society mirrors those ideas, which exist as a result of this male-domination.

Researchers David Bender and Bruno Leone state that women are manipulated into pursuing careers of a certain kind when companies do not give maternal leave or subsidized child care for working mothers. Over half of working mothers in North America have no rights for maternal leave. “Even in more recent times when the line between job opportunities amongst the genders is ever fading, a secretary or nurse or most of any other jobs which required supervision is still engraved into society as a females role” , says psychologist Carol Gillian. An example of this is from case study of professor at Ryerson Polytechnic University, Mustapha Koc, where Mary was given the responsibility of being the secretary, accountant and packaging department of the family business while her husband was the boss. This showed that even though they were husband and wife and could have shared all responsibilities equally, Mary was content to play the role society had outlined for her. Mary also became a housewife and quit her job at the bank without much debate when her children were born. This is because of the norms society had laid down.

However, other researchers dispute this opinion by suggesting that social values are changing in North America as well as in the rest of the world. Worsening economic conditions, need for two incomes per family, rising divorce rates, and insecurity in marriage are prompting women to plan and prepare for a career. Younger women realize that they are more likely to satisfy their survival needs directly through their own earnings rather than indirectly through the income of their spouses. Helen Astin, professor of higher education of the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California, suggests that the “medical and technological advances such as amniocentesis, artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization and surrogate motherhood, provide women a greater control over their lives and bodies. Added to this is the concept of smaller families and longer life expectancy. These concepts give women more freedom and choice to plan and prepare for such eventualities”. Astin is a contrary opinion, however, as she has stated that the basic need for survival, pleasure and contribution motivate humans to seek employment. Economic conditions, a sense of devaluation of the domestic, and a desire to find self-fulfillment drive majority of the women into the job market.

The Essay on Asses the view that in today’s society the family is losing its functions

. different domestic arrangements. For instance, in today's society different family types are on the rise, this include single parents . before unlike today where different family types are increasing in society. This suggests that society is changing rapidly and therefore . escape these harsh realities of society. In conclusion, i believe that the family in todays society is losing its functions. .

Various suggestions have been put forward to explain the reason why women are driven to the workforce. Changing economic conditions may have driven women into the labour market, but after being in the workforce for a few decades they realize that paid employment along with satisfying their basic financial needs, also fulfills their individual needs of independence, provides them with a greater control of environment, and enables them to contribute more meaningfully to societal and personal needs. The challenge of work that is valued by the society, gives them a sense of achievement, and a realization of self-worth. This gain of self-esteem in large part is instrumental in satisfying their pleasure and contributory needs. Recent studies of females in professional employment of Nancy Betz, physiologist from University of Minnesota, have shown that “men and women do not differ in self-ratings, self confidence and work values”.

Clarice Auluck-Wilson, sociology professor at University of Chicago, highlights the facts that in the family women’s lives are controlled through male authority figure, by imposing the entire burden of domestic work upon them in addition to the paid work outside the home. Most men believe that domestic work and child-care are not their job, and some of them consider it beneath their dignity to perform those tasks. Employment may not release women from subordination, but it does provide them the psychological basis to exert and exercise power. Economic independence, self confidence and personal achievement motivation are the only tools that serve the women well in negotiating their status in the family with their husbands and other family members. Women’s employment marks a significant rejection of male control.

The Essay on Risks For The Relationship Women Men One Male

. marriage to his woman. Women nowadays like to hint to the male about getting married but men are still expected . a woman that they like but, the risks can be worth it. Firstly, when a male likes a female . at the time. Then, when the male does not do what the female wants he gets into trouble; however . is more acceptable for females to let their emotions flow freely. As well, females most of the time .

However, it is not easy for a woman to receive the same compensation as men, “measurable inequalities in occupational opportunities, wages, and workplace barriers continue to exist for women. A wage gap between women’s and men’s wages still exists. For example, there is 2% difference in pay between men and women two years after graduation, but this increases to a 16% difference in pay from two to five years after graduation.” Researches have investigated that women tend to have higher self-efficacy for traditional occupations and working with people, and lower self-efficacy for non-traditional professions and working with technology. In contrast to Carol Gilligan, who states that there are very little difference in the aspirations and goals between males and females , some psychologists agree that that women continue to experience lower career aspirations than men and are under-represented in some fields, such as physical science, applied mathematics, and engineering.

When determining the answer to the question, are there any differences in the aspirations and career goals between males and females?, one has to look at individuals, but also look at the ways in which society shapes the career outlook of both men and women. Throughout history, men have dominated the work sphere, and although this trend is reversing, it still continues to exist. Men still dominate society and are therefore in the position to enforce their dominant hegemony, leading to continued inequalities. The findings of the research of the experts in the field showed that women’s role in society affects the policies within nations, which often result in making it more difficult for women to pursue male-dominated jobs, as well as paying them less for equal work.

The Essay on Suffering of Woman Protagonist in Male Hegemony Society Within The Yellow Wallpaper

. Florence Fenwick Miller , midwife turned journalist describes woman’s position succinctly. Under exclusively man-made laws women have . speaks about is her and all the women trapped in a male dominant society. So she belives she can free them . 19 century many woman writers wrote various things to show their gender’s suffering living in a male dominant society. In l890 .

A number of researches agree that the world is changing, and in many cases the gap between men and women is closing, and making conditions better for women to succeed. The findings of Carol Gilligan and Susan D. Phillips help to understand the differences between aspirations and career goals between males and females, but it is difficult to determine whether or not this is directly biological, or whether it is a directly related to the greater obstacles that women face in comparison to men. Consequently, this Literature Review addresses gender inequity in the modern society and provides many viewpoints on the differences in the aspirations and career goals between males and females.


1. Bender,David Male/Female roles – opposing view points . (1999 October 29th).

2. Joanne Naiman 1997: How Societies Work. Class power and change in Canadian context.

3. Pervin, Lawrence A (1990).

Handbook of personality. New York

4. Carol Gillian (1986).

Reply to Carol Gilligan. Signs, 11, 324-333.

5. Koc, Mustapha Woman in our modern society . 27.

6. Astin, Helen S (1984).

The meaning of work in women’s lives: A sociological model of career choice and work behavior.

Women’s Lives: Themes and variations in gender learning. Montray, CA: Brooks/Cole.

8. Betz, N.E. (1981).A self-efficiency approach to the career development of women. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 18, 326-339.

9. Clarice A. Auluck-Wilson (1995).

When all the Women lift. Signs, 20, 130-138.

10. Mernissi, Fatima. (1975).

Beyond the veil. New York, Wiley.

The male and female wage gap Vol. 29-35).

12. Whiston, S.C. (1993).Self-efficacy of women in traditional and non-traditional occupations. Journal of career development. 19, 175-185.

13. Jacob ,Jerry A. (1992) Women’s entry into management: Trends in earnings, authority and values among salaried managers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 2, 282-301

The Essay on Career Plan Building Activity: Work Culture Preferences

. work can be done without following a clear set of rules” fit me to a T. Some of my career . decided on working with numbers instead. On the Career Competencies, my strengths was following instructions, coping . positive roles in a group. After completing the Work Culture Preferences, my results were supportive, well . , and performance focused. I like to work in a fun environment with technology that can .

. , terrific looks or money coming out your ears.Most women love a man who loves them and knows how to treat them . . Well. almost anything. LOL Men and women think, feel and act differently. Have you read, "Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus" by .

. the male and feminine roles are to be played by the female. Society has stratified or put certain titles on jobs for men and women; . s sex distinction is developed prior to birth. Gender differences are a matter of power, therefore, Masculine is .

Women Vs. Men In The Work Force

. men advance and women stay in place, or as women in mostly female kinds of jobs reach the end of characteristically short career . Women vs. Men in the Work Force. I researched for weeks and weeks to get all of the information I could on pay differences .

. . " (web) The differences between the educational attainment of female and male users continue to decrease. Nearly the same numbers of women and men have graduated .

Study Of Women Male Men Societies

. women." Defining females: the nature of women in society, Shirley Arden er, ed. London, Croom Helm. 1978 Rohrlich-Leavitt, Ruby, et al; "Aboriginal Woman: Male and Female .

. differences and deep seated psychological differences that develop in early childhood between men and women explain why women . society. Both men and women . Older Male Carers. British Journal of Social Work . by Female Employees. . multiple roles and .

Essay/Term paper: Gender inequality

Essay, term paper, research paper: Gender

Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Gender: Gender Inequality, you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly

reverberating through society for decades. The problem of inequality in

employment being one of the most pressing issues today. In order to examine

this situation one must try to get to the root of the problem and must

understand the sociological factors that cause women to have a much more

difficult time getting the same benefits, wages, and job opportunities as their

male counterparts. The society in which we live has been shaped historically by

males. The policy-makers have consistently been male and therefore it is not

surprising that our society reflects those biases which exist as a result of

this male-domination. It is important to examine all facets of this problem, but

in order to fully tackle the issue one must recognize that this inequality in

the workforce is rooted in what shapes future employees and employers--

education. This paper will examine the inequalities in policy, actual teaching

situations, admission to post-secondary institutions, hiring, and job benefits

and wages. It will also tackle what is being done to solve this problem and what

can be done to remedy the situation.

The late 1960s brought on the first real indication that feminist groups

were concerned with the education system in North America. The focus of these

feminist groups captured the attention of teachers, parents, and students. At

first the evidence for inequality in schooling was based on no more than

specific case studies and anecdotal references to support their claims but as

more people began to show concern for the situation, more conclusive research

was done to show that the claims of inequality were in fact valid and definitely

indicated a problem with the way that schools were educating the future adults

of society. One of the problems which became apparent was the fact that the

policy-makers set a curriculum which, as shown specifically through textbooks,

was sexist and for the most part still is.

Textbooks are one of the most important tools used in educating students

whether they are elementary school storybooks or university medical textbooks.

It is therefore no surprise that these books are some of the most crucial

information sources that a student has throughout their schooling. Many studies

have been done examining the contents of these books to reveal the amount of

sexism displayed in these educational tools. The results clearly show that

gender inequality definitely runs rampant in textbooks some of the sexism subtle

and some overt. To begin with, it is apparent that historical texts show a

distorted view of women by portraying them unfairly and inaccurately and

neglecting to mention important female figures, instead opting to describe their

sometimes less influential male counterparts. Elementary and secondary school

textbooks are also guilty of gender bias.

Boys predominate in stories for children; they outnumber girls 5 to 2. When

girls are present in texts, they are almost always younger than the boys they

are interacting with, which thus makes them foils for the boys' greater

experience and knowledge-- a situation commonly referred to as the "ninny

sister syndrome.' Girls are shown to be far more passive than are boys and to

engage in fewer activities. In fact, sometimes grown women are portrayed who

rely on small boys (often their young sons) to help them out of difficulty.

(Fishel and Pottker 1977. p. 8)

found that belittled boys). Another study pointed out an instance where Mark, of

the Harper & Row "Mark and Janet' series, states: "Just look at her. She is just

like a girl. She gives up.' Male characters said, in another story, "We much

prefer to work with men.' This type of material on the treatment of girls would

seem to have little social or educational value, and its widespread use is

difficult to understand. (ibid, p.8)

perhaps through the lack of female role models, can affect the choices they make

in the future with regards to employment.

teachers do not try to be sexist but, for sociological reasons, can not help it.

For the sake of this paper, it will be assumed that these situations occur

mostly in co-educational schools, but single sex schools are in no way immune to

the same problems. A perfect example of society's male-dominance interfering in

education unintentionally is when teachers assign projects to their students.

The teachers may hand out lists of acceptable topics ranging, in a history class

for example, from fashion to transportation. The teachers then give the students

a choice as to which topic they would like to do the project on. The underlying

problem with this is that girls tend to choose what could be considered more

"feminine" topics while the boys will choose the more "masculine" ones. "Offered

to the pupils as free choice, such selections are self-perpetuating, leading to

the expected choices and amplifying any differences there may have been in

attitudes." (Marland 1983, p. 152) The reason for this could be that society,

through the media and other modes of communication, has pre-conceived notions as

to what issues are "male", "female", or unisex.

classroom is during class discussion and also what the teacher decides to talk

about in the class. Classroom behaviour is a major focal point for those who

identify examples of inequality. There are many differences in the way that

females and males present themselves at school. It is apparent that in classroom

situations males talk more, interrupt more, they define the topic, and women

tend to support them. It is generally believed in our society that this is the

proper way to act in classroom situations, that males have it "right" and

females don't, they are just "pushovers" and don't have enough confidence. This,

however is a big assumption to make. Some research has been done in this field

that could, however, begin to refute this stereotype. It is frequently assumed

that males use language which is forceful confident and masterful (all values

which are regarded as positive). Females on the other hand, it is assumed, use

language that is more hesitant, qualified, and tentative. One can look at the

example of the use of tag questions, which are statements with questions tagged

onto the end such as "I'm going to the store, all right?" It is obvious that if

the above assumptions about the use of language were true, this hesitant, asking

for approval type of question would be more frequently used by women. ". . .

studies were carried out to determine whether women used more tag questions than

men. It was found that they did not. Betty Lou Dubois and Isabel Crouch (1975)

found that men used more tag questions than women." (ibid p. 100) The end of

high school brings about more obstacles for women on the way to achieving

equality in the workplace. One of the most important steps in achieving a high

paying, high status job is post-secondary education. It is apparent that even

today women are being encouraged to follow certain educational paths. This is

shown very simply by the fact that even here at Queen's University, men vastly

outnumber women as both students and faculty members in such programs as Applied

Science, while women greatly outnumber men in the programs of nursing and

concurrent education. Women have historically been encouraged to enter into what

could be considered "caring professions" such as nursing, teaching, and social

work. This is shown very crudely in the book Careers for Women in Canada which

was published in 1946 and written by a woman. The book devotes almost 200 pages

to pursuing careers in such fields as catering, sewing, being a secretary,

interior decorating, the arts, teaching, and nursing while it only allocates 30

pages to medicine, law, dentistry, engineering, optometry, and more combined.

The following quote clearly illustrates the beliefs of the more liberal people

of that time. "Some women have specialized in surgery. There can be no doubt but

that a capable woman may operate very successfully on women and children, though

it is doubtful whether a man would call in the services of a female surgeon

except in an emergency. (Carriere 1946, p. 234) Although much has improved since

the 1940s, the enrollment numbers in university programs clearly indicate that

women still have a long way to go before gender is not an issue. After choosing

a career path, women enter the workplace with a disadvantage. They have the same

financial responsibilities as men with regards to supporting families and

themselves and much of the time they have an even heavier burden because there

are many women in today's society who are single mothers. Given that there is no

question that the need for money is identical it can, therefore, be concluded

that there is a major problem with the wage structure in today's jobs. The wage

gap clearly shows that society as a whole puts more value on the work of males

than on the same work done by females. The facts that have been displayed above

showing that education is itself a sexist institution perhaps explain why there

is this inequality once schooling is finished. The fact that textbooks show

males as being more successful than females, that teachers set assignments which

reinforce gender stereotypes and sex roles, the fact that "masculine" behaviour

is reinforced while "feminine" behaviour is condemned, and the fact that women

are encouraged to choose certain career paths all validate the claim that the

gender inequality in employment situations can be directly related to the way

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Research papers on gender inequality

"Research Paper on Gender Inequality"

The question on how gender inequality shapes peoples' life chances is one that has been echoing widely through minds of modern society in the recent decades. Historically sociologists have suggested, amongst various other reasons, that biological differences between men and women constitute as one of the main reasons for males having better job opportunities. Thus males were always branded the breadwinners of the family whilst a female's place was at home (Joanne Naiman 1997: 250-51). However, during the latter half of the 20th century these views began to slowly change but still stained with the ideologies from the past they still exist at the brink of the 21st century. Nevertheless, this is in a more subtle form and it is culturally reasoned to be normal and acceptable. This paper will discuss from a sociologists point of view how gender has come to determine ones future due to ideas instilled into society some time ago intervened with that of the present.

Examining this from the root one can see that historically males have shaped the society in which we live. The policy-makers have almost always been male and therefore it is not surprising that our society mirrors those ideas, which exist as a result of this male-domination. For example in Joanne Naiman's book, there is an excerpt from Gustave Le Bonne, a Parisian in 1879, in which he openly compared most of the female brains with that of gorillas and stated " the inferiority (of women) is so obvious that no one can contest it for the moment; only its degree is worth discussing." (quoted in Joanne Naiman 1997: 250)

Another instance closer to recent times is from Carol Travis' book titled "The Mismeasurement Of Woman". She states that in the beginning the left hemisphere of the brain was considered to deal.

Please note! This is not an example of text written by our writers! is a database of essays that were collected at open web resources. You can use them at you own risk following the citation rules below.

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Workplace Gender Inequality Research Paper Sample

The issue of gender inequality is one of the most often-raised issues nowadays. One of the factors that can affect this social phenomenon is parenthood. Our gender inequality research paper presented below reveals this topic. If you are writing a similar paper, it will be profitable for you to read the sample below. It was completed by a writer from EssayShark who is knowledgeable in psychology and allied disciplines. By examining this piece of writing, you will comprehend how to formulate your arguments correctly, how to structure your paper, and make your writing consistent. Also, you’ll learn new data on the issue.

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How Does Parenthood Affect Gender Inequality in the Workplace?

Gender inequality is present in most circumstances, and has been since ancient times. It is a theme that has been discussed thoroughly since the beginning of recorded interactions between men and women. Though at first sight it appears a sociological input, there are works that advocate for this matter to contain a sociobiological and evolutionary psychological background. Pragmatically, any idea is a product of education, so we shall consider how parenthood can contribute as a catalyst to this gender bias.

The classicist theories on gender bias undoubtedly play an expansionist role in the labor division of today’s society. Freud spoke about each of the human participants as bound to a continuous psychological scheme, formed of several milestones. Both boys and girls are to explore within themselves the values of being whether a man or a woman by gradually passing through certain periods that become determinant in their future representation as a capable person that is able to establish a loving relationship similar to that of their parents in a system of values (1905). In this scheme he clearly divides both of the gender roles by the sense of their anatomy, where the boy is complete and the woman has to compensate a deficiency by becoming a wife. Later on, Erik Erikson consolidated this theory, describing that “something in the young woman’s identity must keep itself open for the peculiarities of the man to be joined and that of the children to be brought up…” (1905).

Further on the gender bias comes up to be strengthened by the evolutionary psychological perspective which offers as a criterium of appreciation the term of parental investment. It renders how genetically men and women are woven into this ball of thread in the hands of destiny, where they had nothing to do but to adapt to the natural habitat of that period (Buss). Females appear to invest more into parenting than males, as bound to the mammal specific features of fertilization and of providing nutrition until the offspring is weaned, in comparison to men whose investment is as little as the sperm produced during copulation, meaning that males are not essential due to the biological evolution of the offspring into reaching its adulthood (Geary). And that fundamentalist idea is kept as a labor distinction stereotype today. Nevertheless, the biologic determinism is opposed by the modern evolutionary psychologists, arguing that from this perspective human nature includes evolved psychological mechanisms that require input, such as cultural beliefs and social norms for their operation (Trivers 1972).

Considering the current gender situation in the workplace, we have observed vast changes since the Victorian period and its determinist ideologies, but the inequality still persists due to the US Census Bureau report that scales women’s earnings to 80% of what men are paid. In a Q&A article, Mary Brinton, sociology professor at Harvard University, speaks about the nurturing seed of this problem, which is the fact that we all are prone to engaging in stereotyping. She offers a possible solution for this matter for the workplaces to accept the idea of adapting to “the whole person” both male and female and recognize the contributions that each individual, male or female, can make to the workplace and to relationships at home (Brinton).

Parenthood doesn’t have much to do alone as an object of change in the workplace. First of all we are to deal with the roots that developed the idea of gender bias in labor division and that has started with the analytical thinking seen in the psychoanalysis of Freud and the evolutionary psychological perspectives of Buss and Geary. Though at their turn, they can’t be seen as false, as they contain academic truth that had offered support for further investigation of the cause, even if we may see this as determinist and unilateral by today’s standards. Their works surely have played a fundamental role in the interpretation of the society of men and women, which consolidated the idea of what we see today as the unequal labor division, but the new era came up with new professionals, such as Robert Trivers, in the domain that has balanced more or less the ideatic aspects of gender in society.

After all, as Brinton states, the focalization of the individuum should fall onto its contribution to the workplace, whatever the gender, rather than on its chronological adapted stereotype, rooting from its fundamental ancestral role.

1. Buss, D.M. The evolution of desire. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

2. Brinton, Mary. “Gender Inequality and Women in the Workplace.” Harvard Summer

School. 13 Apr. 2017. Web. 12 June 2017.

3. Erikson, Erik. Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton, 1968.

4. Freud, Sigmund. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. London: Hogarth, 1905.

5. Geary, D.C. Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences. Washington, DC:

American Psychological Association, 1998.

6. Trivers, R. Sexual selection and the descent of man. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1972.

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