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psychological disorders essays
How one defines normal depends on the society one lives in. Although every Culture has ideals of what they consider normal behavior, these ideals vary from one Culture to another . When someone deviates from their respective cultures ideal of normal , They may be labeled mentally ill. The book gives the example of transvestic fetishism, where A man is sexually aroused by dressing in women clothing. While this is seen as abnormal in Our society, in some cultures it's normal.
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Homosexuality Is Not a Psychological Disorder Essay
. Homosexuality is not a psychological disorder… In the past, homosexuality was considered to be a psychological disorder, up until the APA removed it from its list of mental illnesses. This was due to the fact that homosexuality causes no form of impairment on the individual’s judgment, stability, reliability, or general social and or vocational abilities. This decision made over 30 years ago, has caused a lot of criticism, many believe that the APA’s decision was made due to the amount of influence that the homosexual activism and not according to the scientific data that was collected. There are two possible sides to this assumption about whether or not homosexuality is and should be considered a psychological disorder. According to an article published in the Scientific Controversies: Case Studies in the Resolution and Closure of Disputes in Science and Technology, edited by H. Tristam Engelhardt Jr., and Arthur Caplan, Cambridge U. Press, 1987. Dr. Irving Bieber, described the attempts for psychiatry to adopt a new perspective regarding sexual normality. During this time the psychiatric professions were moving from the established psychoanalytic theories based on unconscious motivations, in which they claimed that if you cannot visible see distress, dysfunction, and or disability among psychological conditions then it isn’t seen as being disordered. Dr. Bieber while.
. Psychological Disorder Analysis Psychological Disorder Analysis This psychological analysis is about Maria a 42 year old Hispanic female who comes into the mental health clinic complaining of feeling jumpy all of the time, she has trouble sleeping and is enable to concentrate on her work as an accountant. These symptoms are causing problems for her at work. There can be many causes for her symptoms but to get to the root of her issue a clinical assessment, diagnoses, and proper treatment for her disorder will be submitted. Maria comes into the clinic complaining of having trouble sleeping, feeling jumpy all the time, she has trouble concentrating on her work which seems to be causing an issue. A clinical interview is done first on Maria to attain some background information. Clinical interviews questions are 1. What brings her to the clinic? 2. When did these feelings start and did an event trigger them? 3. Do these feelings last long? 4. What is her relationship with her parents? 5. What is her relationship with her siblings? 6. What type of work does she do? 7. What are her romantic relationships like? 8. What was her childhood experiences like? 9. What makes her happy? 10. Does she have any medical problems or medication she is taking? A possible disorder is causing her symptoms. Because information was not given concerning her background, family or social life.
Dsm Iv Psychological Disorders Essay
. DSM IV PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS DSM IV is the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It is also known as DSM-IV-TR. It is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. It is used in the United States and in varying countries around the world. It is used by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, phameceutical companies, and policy makers. There have been five revisions since it was first published in 1952. It gradually included more mental disorders although some have been removed and are no longer considered to be mental disorders, most notably homosexuality. The manual was first used for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a manual developed by the US ARMY and was dramatically changed in 1980. The last major edition was the fourth edition (DSM-IV) and was published in 1994. DSM uses a coding system. The coding system is designed to correspond with codes from the International Classification of Diseases, commonly referred to as the ICD. However, the ICD and DSM are not the same. Early versions of the DSM did not correlate with ICD codes and updates. The DSM has attracted controversy and criticism as well as praise. Some critics argue that the DSM represents an unscientific system that.
. Among many psychological disorders, anxiety disorders are the most predominant in the United States. According to Antony (2011), anxiety disorders affect nearly 28.8 percent of the population. An extreme and unrealistic anxiety is the most common symptom that characterizes all the psychological conditions within the category of anxiety disorders. The category includes specific phobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper examines obsessive-compulsive disorder discussing the major etymological explanations of anxiety disorders in general, specifically describing the condition, and discussing actual treatments for the disorder. Anxiety played an important role in the psychoanalytic theory, and, as a result, psychoanalytic interpretation is important to understand anxiety disorders. In the psychoanalytic interpretation, anxiety is defined an intense sensation of endangerment and an unconscious mechanism produced by unconscious conflicts. According to Wolman and Stricker (1994), it can be understood as a symptom that is the cause and effect of itself and a product of past experience, psychological mechanisms, and psychic contents like persecutory anxiety.
. Running head: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Psychological Disorders (Extra Credit Assignment) Debra Fitch PSY 100 Professor: Angelique Andrews June 1, 2010 The term psychological disorder or mental disorder is a term that many individuals misuse. Mentally ill people are often labeled and stigmatized by others. Many people refer to someone with a mental or psychological disorder by using incorrect words, labels and [slang] terms. Labeling and using expressions such as basket case, mental case, crazy as a loon, loony, retarded or [he, she] is mental or out of their mind are unacceptable; they not only further damages an already ill person, but also deter these individuals from seeking help because they do not want anyone to find out about their particular disorder(s). The definition of a psychological disorder as defined by Cherry (2010), is “A pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple life areas and/or create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms”. Essentially, a mental disorder impedes a person’s ability to think, feel and relate to others. The DSM-IV TR, a book containing a classification of psychological disorders, estimates that there are approximately 250 different.
. De’Ja commons Pgs. 176-179 Etiology: Sociocultural level of analysis Lee et al. suggest that a social fat phobia may underlie anorexia, and this phobia is starting to thrive in other parts of the world Places where anorexia has increased a lot it is due to media influence and large amounts of info about dieting and eating disorders Girls who become anorexic are more likely to accept the messages about beauty and thinness in the media. It isn’t clear whether this acceptance lead to the anorexia or if anorexia caused the acceptance of the media Lee et al also hypothesized that the increase in anorexia in other countries could be a result of increased use of Western diagnostic systems that increase behaviors. Body weight is NOT indicative of psychiatric problems --- 16% of healthy but slim Chinese women would meet Western diagnostic criteria for anorectic weight Strahan et al. believe that media is not so much a cause of women believing that they are the wrong shape, but encourages them to think that everyone else accepts thin models and actresses as normal and attractive They then conform to the perceived expectations of others which lead to excessive dieting This influence could affect both males and females in their development from a very young age The interaction between biology, cognition, and the sociocultural context of a person’s life is needed in order to completely understand how anorexia develops. Treatments for anorexia nervosa.
Essay about Psychological Disorders
. Chapter 8- Psychological Disorders Neurosis: term used to describe disorders causing personal distress and impairment in functioning, but did not cause a person to lose contact with reality Psychosis: a serious disturbance that can cause people to lose touch with reality and to suffer from delusions and hallucinations 5 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 1. Biological Causes: a PD is a symptom of an underlying physical disorder cause by abnormalities in the brain by genetics, heredity or infection Treatment: diagnose and treat like any other physical disorder. Drugs, electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery 2. Psychodynamic Causes: PD stem from childhood experiences, unresolved unconscious sexual or aggressive conflicts Treatment: psychoanalysis. Bring repressed material to consciousness 3. Learning Causes: abnormal thoughts, feelings and behaviours are learned or there is a failure to learn appropriate behaviour Treatment: use classical and operant conditions and modeling to extinguish abnormal behaviours and increase the creation of new ones 4. Cognitive Causes: faulty and negative thinking can cause psychological disorders Treatment: change faulty, irrational and or negative thinking. Beck’s cognitive therapy or ration-emotive therapy 5. Humanistic Causes: PD result from blocking of the normal tendency.
Analyzing Psychological Disorders
. Analyzing Psychological Disorders Heather Michaud Psychology: The Brain, The Body, and The Mind: All Together Now 2/21/2010 Kim Piowarsy Disorders: Part A A good psychologist should have the understanding of how the body and mind work together. What makes a person who they are and how they operate. Psychologists are the ones that help others to understand what disorders are and how to handle them in difficult situations. In this essay it will be discussed what the understanding is of the causes and treatments of schizophrenia. This essay will also touch on anxiety and insomnia from a biopsychologist’s point of view as well as the relation to the nature versus nurture issue. Schizophrenia To be able to tell the areas of the brain that are affected, causal factors, associated symptoms, the neural basis, and appropriate drug therapies, it first needs to be discussed what schizophrenia is. So here is a brief definition: It is said that schizophrenia is the “splitting of psychic functions”. It is the breakdown of one’s emotions, thoughts and actions (Pinel, 2007). Most people that run into someone with schizophrenia might think that they have gone completely mad and in all actuality, they have. In the mind of a schizophrenic person their thoughts and actions are perfectly normal to them. In fact they might believe that we are the ones with the disorder. That our actions and opinions to.
Custom Psychological Disorders essay paper
Once a psychological disorder occurs, it causes behaviors or symptoms which affect life and also cause distress to the person experiencing the disorder. The causes of psychological disorders can not be definitive and could be due to environmental, biological or psychological causes. Biologically it can be due to genetic compositions or effects, infections of the brain, or drugs and substance abuse. Drugs and other substances can cause anxiety, depression, and paranoia.
Biologically, there is a link of mental illnesses to a balance of neurotransmitters which are special chemicals in the brain that help in communication. When this communication is not complete, there occur signs of illness. Psychological causes of disorders can be experienced when an individual goes through trauma or abuse such as sexual harassment, neglect, social misfit, battering, and loss of someone close among others. Environmental factors involved in this disorder include divorce, poverty, low esteem, unemployment, and social and cultural expectations (Kessler, 1997).
There are many types of psychological disorders they include; depression, acute stress disorder, agoraphobia, anorexia nervosa, dementia, drug addiction, insomnia, mood disorders, schizophrenia, sexual addiction, social anxiety disorder just to name but a few.
This paper describes psychological disorders as they occur presently. The main disorder described here is dementia which has a high prevalence rate as people grow old. The causes, signs and symptoms, treatment, and side effects are described. The prevalence rate in the US is also described and a discussion of how the disorder affects the family of the person who has it is also provided. Finally, what the society can do to help these people and ways to prevent the disorder are looked into.
Dementia is a psychological disorder characterized by loss of brain function and commonly occurs together with other diseases e.g. Alzheimer and stroke. The disease mainly affects the patient’s memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Such people may not be able to coordinate several normal activities e.g. dressing and eating; they have illusions and have a change of personality. The disease that commonly leads to dementia is Alzheimer’s. Dementia has three stages; the mild, moderate and severe stage. In this paper the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and current treatments are described.
Dementia may be categorized into many types depending on the cause. Most of these types are nonreversible or degenerative. This means that the steps or process that the brain has undergone cannot be redone, stopped, or turned back, hence the fact that it worsens with time. As stated earlier, the most common ailment that causes dementia is Alzheimer although in elderly adults lewy body disease is the main cause of dementia. Other medical conditions that cause dementia are Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, pick’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy. This disease can also be caused by those diseases that affect the brain. Actually, the disease leads to abnormal protein structures in some areas of the brain of the patient (Shub, & Kunik, 2009).
For dementia, the patients have to race against time in identifying the disorder since it is very easy to reverse it once it is found at earlier stages. Reversible causes of dementia include; brain tumors, diabetes, low vitamin levels, high blood pressure, allergies, alcoholism, and the metabolic causes of dementia. As one grow older the risk of having the disorder increases, while it is rare in those under the age of 60 (Teng, Hasegawa and Homma, 1994).
The causes may be generalized into fixed cognitive impairment which include brain injuries e.g. traumatic brain injuries, diffuse axonal injuries, hypoxic-ischemic injury, meningitis, hydrocephalus and korsakoff’s psychosis, slowly progressive dementia; where the disease worsens progressively over years, and rapidly progressive dementia; which worsens in weeks or months and is caused by creutzfeldt-jakob disease, encephalopathy, delirium, viral encephalitis, sub acute sclerosing panencephalitis, Whipple's disease, limbic encephalitis, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and cerebral vasculitis (Shub & Kunik, 2009).
Sign and symptoms
In dementia, the disorder does not show linear progression of symptoms since some come earlier while others come late depending on the patient health and strength. In addition, some stages overlap and there is no actual time given for a symptom to occur. Dementia can be detected through the continuous impoverishment of mind and mental activities that affect the mental life of the person. The most common signs include frequent and progressive memory loss. Persons with dementia forget things more often; they forget events, duties, occasions, and people. They can only be made to remember when one uses familiar faces, smells, touches, songs or objects.
Persons infected often experience language difficulties given that they are more or less unable to understand instructions or complete logical complex sentences (Teng, Hasegawa and Homma, 1994). They don’t understand their own sentences and find it difficult to form words. They also find it hard to remember correct words and they forget simple words and have the behavior of substituting unusual words, and making incomplete speeches and sentences.
Confusion is also evident - this is where the persons are estranged and become unpredictable in the actions they do. This can be acute which means it is sudden and limited in time. It leads to disorientation of the person in what he does and where he goes and never works in schedule or correct time because he/she is unable to recall time or place.
Inability to perform familiar tasks: - persons find it difficult to complete daily tasks that they had been used to performing. They lack proper sequence in the task and duties they undertake e.g. problems in wearing of clothes (Shub, & Kunik, 2009). Difficulty with abstract thinking; planning duties, making decisions, or organizing any tasks is very hard for these People not forgetting that they have low ability in performing simple monetary transactions.
Misplacing belongings: - placing things at the incorrect place is the routine of these persons. They place objects at unusually odd places where they do not belong. The can leave cooking pans in the wardrobe, the remote control in the fridge and other odd things (Dougall, Bruggink & Ebmeier, 2004).
Rapid mood swings: - these persons are characterized by their extreme moody behaviors; they switch between emotions within short intervals of time with no given or warranted reason. Other persons may display opposite emotions hence display less emotions or become less emotional than they used to be (Teng, Hasegawa and Homma, 1994).
Behavioral changes: - usually, these people change in unusual ways that are unexplainable. They may be suspicious, apathetic, anxious, irritable, depressed, or agitated, especially when there is a problem in remembering anything.
Apathy/ lack of initiative: - this is when a person shows signs of passiveness, don’t-care attitude, loneliness, and spends time doing nothing or just sitting idly. The person may even loose interest in what he considered enjoyable and good.
Stages of dementia
There are three stages of dementia, which include mild or early stage, moderate or middle stage, and severe or late stage. Before these stages develop in the patient, there is a stage known as the mild cognitive impairment which is the stage between loss of memory and the development and diagnosis of dementia. The signs of this stage are; forgetting, difficult in multi tasking and solving problems and longer stabilizing periods.
The mild or early stage is characterized by forgetfulness, repetition in speech, low understanding of oneself, difficulty of paying bills using currency, blaming others, having no interest in hobbies, difficulty in adapting to change, and irrationality (Shub & Kunik, 2009).
The moderate or mid stage is characterized by increased forgetfulness, repetition of phrases, confusion of time and place, forgetting of people, neglect of personal hygiene, hallucinations, angriness and high mood swings. The severe or late stage is characterized by total dependence of medical personnel and people around them. They don’t remember anything, don’t speak or understand what is said, do not recognize anyone, are restless, are physically weaklings, hallucinate a lot, move uncontrollably, find it difficult to swallow and they become depressed and aggressive (Teng, Hasegawa and Homma, 1994).
Dementia is diagnosed through a history and physical examination of the patient showing the symptoms. The purpose of diagnosis is to eliminate chances of treating the wrong disorder. A physician may be treating dementia due to memory loss symptoms but they may be due to depression. The best method to diagnose and treat dementia is through an interdisciplinary team rather than one physician (Dougall, Bruggink & Ebmeier, 2004), i.e. physicians from other fields of medicine. Diagnosis has several components that include the medical history, medication history, extensive physician examinations, laboratory tests, neurological exam, and neuropsychological test.
Treatment and side effects
This begins with the treatment of the underlying diseases, for instance, treating cause of nutritional deficiency, hormonal, tumors and drugs caused dementia. The main aim in treating dementia is to slow down the continued damage on the brain and reduce behavioral symptoms. Treatment can be done through psychotherapy, environmental modification and medication.
Psychotherapy is the use of behavioral approach. This reduces undesirable behaviors e.g. aggression (Dougall, Bruggink & Ebmeier, 2004). It involves identification of the behavior and using a mechanism to change the behavior. Environmental modification makes the patient more safe and comfortable due to reduced agitation. The same environment can be modified to make it safer and more habitable for the patient.
Medication can be given to reduce dementia symptoms (Dougall, Bruggink & Ebmeier, 2004). The drugs are responsible for improving brain functions. Some of these drugs include acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors which allow brains cells to start communication through neurotransmitters. Psychotropic drugs are used for supportive therapy while treating behavioral problems. Antipsychotic medicines can be effective in reducing hallucinations and delusions. Anti-anxiety and antidepressants can be used to treat anxiety and depression signs respectively (Teng, Hasegawa, Homma, 1994).
Side effects of the medications can be minimized by administering them cautiously to patients. They should be given in the lowest possible effective doses while supervising them closely. Dementia can also be treated through other means such as physical therapy, or herbal medicines. Those infected and not able to move can be supplied with walkers so that they can move about. Occupational therapy, music, and art can be used to calm the moods (Shub & Kunik, 2009). Herbal medicines, vitamin additives and dietary supplements can be used to reduce the effects of dementia.
Prevalence of dementia in US
According to Plassman, Langa, Fisher, Heeringa, Weir, Ofstedal, Burke, Hurd, Potter, Rodgers, Steffens, Willis, & Wallace (2007) in their paper “Prevalence of Dementia in the United States: The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study,” they state that “prevalence of dementia among individuals aged 71 and older was 13.9%, comprising about 3.4 million individuals in the USA in 2002. The corresponding values for AD were 9.7% and 2.4 million individuals. Dementia prevalence increased with age, from 5.0% of those aged 71-79 years to 37.4% of those aged 90 and older”.
Dementia patients can be mistaken for being mad. They eventually become mentally incapacitated if the disorder is not treated in time. The treatment should focus on treating the causes and not the signs so as to have minimal side effects. Treatments such as natural therapy are essential so as to evade the intensive side effects such as blur vision, or lack of sleep, both of which can have other negative effects in their lives (Dougall, Bruggink & Ebmeier, 2004). Better diagnosis of this disorder should also be enhanced so as to treat the disorder at early stages before it develops to chronic level. Society can help by being involved in the general knowledge of the disorder. Once affected, there is a need to seek medical attention. Moreover, people should also be trained on the aspects of living with people with dementia. The know-how of handling such individuals would aid faster recovery from the illness and faster absorption in the society (Shub, & Kunik, 2009).
The best way to prevent the disorder is by enhancing the personality of an individual. This will equip individuals with the best shock against any occurrence. The family of the patient may be discouraged by the dementia and many may even see it as family related (genetic). The family should take precautionary steps so as to establish the real cause and ensure that the necessary treatment is administered. In case there is occurrence of a tragedy in the family the strong should keep watch that any symptoms detected on others are quickly treated to avoid chronic illness.
The effects of psychological disorders are real and rampant in the current society. The major challenge is to eliminate these disorders. There are currently approximately 250 disorders involved, and therefore, learning to stay with them can be a huge challenge. The only hope is to increase research so that many disorders can be eliminated and thus maintain a healthy and wealthy nation. Huge finances are being spent on the treatment of such disorders but there is still hope that the same can be eliminated. The current lifestyles have contributed to the development of many of these disorders hence a change of lifestyle should be critical in their elimination. Protection is better than cure hence it is best to keep one safe from these and other disorders.
Psychological disorders essays
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Psychological Disorder Analysis
This psychological analysis is about Maria a 42 year old Hispanic female who comes into the mental health clinic complaining of feeling jumpy all of the time, she has trouble sleeping and is enable to concentrate on her work as an accountant. These symptoms are causing problems for her at work. There can be many causes for her symptoms but to get to the root of her issue a clinical assessment, diagnoses, and proper treatment for her disorder will be submitted. Maria comes into the clinic complaining of having trouble sleeping, feeling jumpy all the time, she has trouble concentrating on her work which seems to be causing an issue. A clinical interview is done first on Maria to attain some background information.
Clinical interviews questions are 1. What brings her to the clinic? 2. When did these feelings start and did an event trigger them? 3. Do these feelings last long? 4. What is her relationship with her parents? 5. What is her relationship with her siblings? 6. What type of work does she do? 7. What are her romantic relationships like? 8. What was her childhood experiences like? 9. What makes her happy? 10. Does she have any medical problems or medication she is taking? A possible disorder is causing her symptoms. Because information was not given concerning her background, family or social life Maria’s symptoms coincide with Dysthymic Disorder with major depression (University Of Phoenix, 2007).
Dysthymic Disorder is known as double depression (Comer, 2011). It has symptoms of chronic and low level depression which reduces one’s ability to function. Some individuals with Dysthymia experience insomnia, or hypersomnia, poor appetite and overeating. They also experience poor concentration or have difficulty making decisions. Some fail to attend to daily hygiene, some experience low energy and low self esteem which cause them to overlook their daily duties or job responsibilities (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Most say they have been unhappy or sad all of their lives which cause them not maintain healthy relationships (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Dysthymia also causes changes in feeling, thinking, and physical well-being (University Of Phoenix, 2007).
Dysthymic disorder share symptoms with major depression. Both disorders share symptoms such as sleep difficulties, shyness, and social withdrawal; poor work performance, irritability, and conflict with family and friends (University Of Phoenix, 2007). The main difference between the two disorders is the intensity and duration of the disorder. With major depression symptoms are more severe such as the individual may be so depressed they cannot get out of bed and have thoughts of suicide whereas with Dysthymia the depression is more muted where the person is able to function on some level, he or she may be getting out of bed, but they may not groom themselves (University Of Phoenix, 2007). The other difference is major depression needs episodes that last for at least two weeks whereas dysthymic disorder symptoms persist for at least two years (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Major depression is also common with minorities. Minority groups that live below poverty or come from family whose environment was impoverished tend to suffer from depression in higher numbers (Comer, 2011). Gender also plays a role in major depression women are twice as likely as men to receive a diagnosis of depression (Comer, 2011). To assess her case the DSM-IV is used. According to what Maria says her symptoms meet the criteria on the DSM-IV. Maria must display two of her symptoms for a period of 2 weeks or longer (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Maria did not indicate in this case study how long she had been experiencing symptoms.
The case study did not indicate Maria’s dress condition or hygiene neither did it indicate that she was shy or socially withdrawn. Maria may have developed dysthymic disorder through a behavioral process called learned helplessness. (University Of Phoenix, 2007). During an experiment dogs were placed in a cage with barricades and were exposed to a stimulus light which was followed by a shock (University Of Phoenix, 2007). They learned quickly through classical conditioning to fear the light (University Of Phoenix, 2007). In phase two of the experiment the shock was turned off and when the first group of dogs was exposed to the light they jumped over the barricade jumping to safety (Comer, 2011). When the second group of dogs encountered a large barrier they could not jump from the fear producing light to safety. When the light came on they ran around the cage barking and when they discovered escape was impossible they lay down and whimpered (University Of Phoenix, 2007). In phase 3 of this experiment all the barriers were removed, and the dogs could escape easily however, when the light came on the dogs that had been trapped made no effort to leave the cage, instead they lay down and whimpered (University Of Phoenix, 2007).
What the experiment revealed is the dogs learned that even though they can escape nothing they can do will improve their conditions so in effect the dogs learned to be helpless (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Because Maria is Hispanic the multicultural perspective plays a role. Because of social norms, family structure, and background this should be all taken into account with minorities. Maria probably grew in an impoverish environment. Research shows that Hispanics are more likely to live a poorer environment that White American (Comer, 2011). Maria may feel that her life was precondition to remain this way even though she has made a life for herself as an accountant. Just like the dogs in her thinking she feels nothing she can do will change her conditions, even though she has opportunities to improve her life she has learned to be helpless which makes her sad and depressed which are symptoms of the disorder (University Of Phoenix, 2007).
Multicultural research also shows that prejudice and discrimination against multicultural groups leads to higher anxiety and depression in minorities (Comer, 2011). Other probably causes for Maria’s disorder is a biological imbalance or hormonal imbalance like those seen in major depression. Biological theorist believes abnormal behavior as an illness is brought on by a malfunctioning organism in the brain or brain chemistry (Comer, 2011). The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons (Comer, 2011). When an electrical impulse reaches a neuron it is stimulated to release a certain chemical called a neurotransmitter which travels to receptors (Comer, 2011). These receptors travel to other neurons telling them to fire or not fire (Comer, 2011). Neurotransmitters play a key role in carrying information through the brain. In Maria’s case her neurotransmitters may be defective causing her symptoms (Comer, 2011). A hormonal imbalance can also trigger depression (Comer, 2011). A woman’s biological life changes as she ages triggering different hormone levels (Comer, 2011). Although hormonal changes cannot alone cause depression alone important social and life events that occur with puberty, pregnancy, or menopause can (Comer, 2011). To treat dysthymic disorder biological treatments such as psychotherapy and medications like Prozac and Tofranil have proven to be helpful in reducing symptoms (University Of Phoenix, 2007).
A variety of psychotherapeutic approaches can work as well. Cognitive behavioral therapy can challenge Marias unrealistic ideas, pessimistic expectations and self-critical evaluations (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Therapy can help her to have a more positive outlook on her life, and can help her to prioritize both opportunities and challenges concerning her life (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Multicultural treatments such as culture-sensitive therapy can be used in which the therapist addresses issues faced by minority groups (Comer, 2011). In addition behavioral oriented therapy can help her adapt better coping skills and help her communicate more effectively with friends and coworkers (University Of Phoenix, 2007). In this case study Maria went to the mental health clinic complaining of having trouble sleeping, feeling jumpy all the time, an inability to concentrate on her work as an accountant. Interview questions were asked which lead to a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder with major depression. Probable causes for her disorder are rooted in a neuro chemical imbalance or a learned helplessness from her environment (University Of Phoenix, 2007). Treatment for dysthymic disorder is psychotherapy and medication to reduce the symptoms (University Of Phoenix, 2007).
Psychological disorders - Essay Example
Disorders in terms of perspective can be broken down into three categories; society, individual and mental health professionals’ view. In the society a character is termed as abnormal on occasion of non conformity to the established social order. Individually the check is from own well being determining normality while professionals take the level of individual discomfort, personality and life functions that determine normality (Bursztyn, 2011).
Psychotic disorder is defined as the severe mental disorder causing abnormal perceptions and thinking. Once psychoses strikes, the patient lose reality’s touch with symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. Among the psychotic behavior is schizophrenia. Psychotic behavior can be caused by some drugs and alcohol, stroke, brain infections and brain tumors (Martin, 2010). Psychotic behavior’s treatment depends on the causal factor. This may involve symptom control through drugs or therapies. Hospitalization is only considered for the extreme cases where the patient poses danger to himself and other people.
Delusional disorder is categorized as a psychotic behavior. Under this disorder, the individual has a challenge in reality recognition. This is a false belief related to an incorrect interpretation of what is real. It may occur as a subset of other differing psychiatric disorders. However, the term is only used the most prominent characteristics are delusions. Patients of this condition hold firmly onto false beliefs despite the clarity in evidence proofing the contrary. It . Show more