how something works topics


how something works topics

Public Speaking Tips & Speech Topics

104 Demonstration Speech Topics

Demonstration speech topics and methods to develop hundred demonstratives for good public speaking, step by step. Follow those steps and read the tips. The goals could be numerous, i.e. to demonstrate a process and give the audience information while using visual aids, or to show how to do something, or how something works.

Begin your writing process by selecting some demonstration materials.

Choose a topic you are knowledgeable about, as this will help make your presentation much more effective.

If you cannot come up with good public speaking cases for a presentation, then use any of the subjects listed below for inspiration.

Ask yourself which of your choices have enough potential to offer your audience valuable and worthwhile information?

a. Who are they? What are their demographics? E.g. Average age, education level, female/male etc.

b. What are their interests, or what is their involvement?

c. What do they like or appreciate?

d. What are their needs, or perhaps their urgent wants?

Use this list of demonstratives to develop your own project for a demonstrative. It can be anything you like. So-called action words and demo verbs are a must. Start with one of these phrases and verbs for setting up demonstrative ideas:

Try some of these other verbs too: deal with, draw, handle, execute, create, design, develop, incorporate, integrate, invent, operate, organize, perform, plan, predict, produce, or structure. Those words generate attention and they are in nature describing what your public speaking audience can expect.

Like the demonstration speech topics below, just vary and tweak them. How to:

  1. cook a pie (or anything else you like / know how to cook).
  2. tie a tie.
  3. fix a flat tire.
  4. create a Halloween mask.
  5. clean your car.
  6. play piano.
  7. change a bank check.
  8. dress like a princess.
  9. play a computer game.
  10. make a cocktail.
  11. taste wine.
  12. organize a surprise party.
  13. print a digital photo.
  14. eat oysters.
  15. register for voting.
  16. make Irish Coffee.
  17. read music notes.
  18. learn playing guitar.
  19. use your breath when you sing.
  20. make beer.
  21. bottle your own wine.
  22. make your garden full of flowers year around.
  23. build a web site.
  24. clean your swimming pool.
  25. clean your golf clubs.
  26. make a fast summer salad.
  27. make a new candle of old ones.
  28. make your own wedding dress.
  29. organize your wedding.
  30. make a water-color.
  31. build a shed.
  32. prevent injury.
  33. knot a carpet.
  34. stop thinking.
  35. speak Italian.
  36. become a good actress.
  37. become a famous film star.
  38. write a film script.
  39. write a business-like letter.
  40. make honey.
  41. blow a glass.
  42. train your brain.
  43. dry your hair.
  44. greet Japanese people.
  45. use the cruise control.
  46. make a genealogical tree.
  47. climb a building.
  48. make a dancing show.
  49. make ice.
  50. snow board.
  51. board on sand.
  52. make a golf swing.
  53. draw a cartoon character.
  54. build a snowman.
  55. use the content of articles without violating their copyrights.
  56. put a weave in hair.
  57. sculpt your eyebrows properly.
  58. apply nail polish.
  59. apply makeup.
  60. find a roommate.
  61. choose the perfect pet.
  62. survive in the wilderness.
  63. make an emergency kit.
  64. perform a magic trick.
  65. organize your closet.
  66. change a baby’s diaper.
  67. find your ancestors.
  68. set up an aquarium.
  69. choose a digital camera.
  70. use the process of deduction.
  71. tie various knots.
  72. use the U.S. Postal Service.
  73. dance.
  74. weave a basket.
  75. write a resume.
  76. knit a scarf.
  77. write a will.
  78. read a map.
  79. avoid ID theft.
  80. Unique uses for duct tape.
  81. make bread crumbs.
  82. pick a bottle of wine.
  83. make banana pudding.
  84. make homemade salsa.
  85. decorate a cake.
  86. make pizza.
  87. make soup.
  88. make ice cream.
  89. make beer.
  90. brush your teeth properly.
  91. be healthy.
  92. choose the right running shoe.
  93. shoot a basketball.
  94. wax a surfboard.
  95. play chess.
  96. play poker.
  97. weight lift.
  98. ski.
  99. program car keys and remotes.
  100. backup your DVDs.
  101. pack a suitcase that passes customs.
  102. find cheap airline tickets.
  103. find the best spring break deals.
  104. how a man can use makeup.

Another way of inventing demonstration speech topics is by association. Look at the general categories and themes below.

Food and Drink, Household Appliances, Sports Equipment, Outdoor Recreation Travel Trips, Health and Beauty Tips, Home Improvement, Home Decoration, Vintage Cars, Government Science, Nature Medicine, College Games, Culture, Tires and Suspension Trademarks, Travel Packing, Acne Curing, Building Treehouses, Vaccines, Vacuum Cleaners, Valentines Day Dating, Vanishing Tricks, Ventilation Systems, Video Game Consoles, Making Home Videos, Volleyball Techniques, Warm Ups and Stretching Training Methods, Water Polo Rules, Wind Turbines, Tasting Wine Vintages, Woodworking, How to Write a Testimonial About Yourself, Sales Elevator Pitches, Yoga for Starters Programs … Et cetera.

How to write a Demonstration speech

Determine the specific purpose of your matter in hand. State it in one simple sentence. E.g. I want to demonstrate how to ___ .

Determine the central idea of the text. In other words, produce a clear factual statement. Explain representing features or delineate the stages by using Powerpoint picture and figure slide sheets.

E.g. It is important to preserve family recipes, and this project is the best way in which to do that..

Once you have decided on a demonstration topic, write an attractive, effective, and interactive attention-getting introduction. Think about these sample elementary preliminary parts:

  • Tell them what you are going to teach – (metaphor for “sell”) – them.
  • Why you choose to demonstrate this topic.
  • Why your listeners should know how to do it. Give them a sneak peek of a few benefits.
  • Tell them that they are going to do it themselves in a couple of minutes and that the only thing your audience has to do is follow your instructions.

Lay out in clear terms the procedure – the particular course of actions. You could consider a series of tactical exercises to help them feel what you mean. Design some kind of an approach for acquiring and applying the knowledge you want to share in class.

Arrange the steps. Show the activities or moves you have to make in a logical chronological order. Describe the details. Be clear.

Do not think the audience will understand your demonstration speech topics immediately. Let them ask you questions after each step before you proceed.

Conclude each step in one uncomplicated phrase. Perform these action checks on the main points before you jump to the next step.

Step 1: Fill in the blanks – name, email, etc.

Step 2: Submit your request.

Step 3: Check your mailbox for a confirmation email.

Step 4: Perform the action they ask in the mail.

Just show them how to do it, step by step. Have you read my checklist? Okay, let’s move forward:

The Delivery Of Your Demonstration Speech Topics

First and for all, remember this ground rule: think about the rules and time limit of the assignment. Plus apply these eight public speaking tips for delivering your demonstration speech topics:

1. Visual aids, such as objects, actual items, models, and drawings all can help your presentation. Do bring them in. For a large object, ask your teacher how to incorporate it.

2. Include personal stories and examples.

3. Provide each audience member the proper materials and ingredients to practice with.

4. Ensure everyone is participating – keep eye contact, laugh, and make some funny remarks in between the lines.

5. Look around you and see if your audience is following you. If not, repeat some sections. There are always people who will not understand right away, but are too shy to admit it. Assist them to jump over the hump.

6. Ask yourself if someone in the audience would assist you with your demonstration. Stay patient and polite, and help if needed. Do not make a fool of that volunteer: praise their efforts in loud and clear supporting terms. You can do it!

7. Close with a memorable summary or with a sharply defined call to action.

8. Ask if there are any questions. And leave a handout of the explored information for people who want to know more.

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Daily Lessons with Simon, ex-IELTS examiner

IELTS Writing Task 1: how something works

A diagram showing how something works is a type of 'process diagram'. Here's an example:

The diagram below shows how solar panels can be used to provide electricity for domestic use.

(Click on image to enlarge. Source:

For tips about writing a 'process diagram' report, go to this lesson.

You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post.

The figure illustrates the way solar energy can be used as a source of household energy. There are 5 components in this system, including Solar Panel, Inverter, Electrical Pane, Utility Meter and Utility Grid.

The heart of the system is Solar Panel, an outdoor part in which the energy from sun light is captured and transformed to the Direct Current or (DC) form of electricity.

As the main form of electricity in domestic use is Alternative Current or (AC) the Inverter Unit is used to change the DC to AC. The final part of the system is the Electrical Panel which act as a hub to distribute household electricity for different purposes.

As both production and consumption of energy are not fixed entities during the time, the Utility Meter is used to provide a steady amount of energy for consumption, by compensating the shortage from and sending of the surplus to the Utility Grid.

The diagram describes the process of generating electricity for domestic use from solar panels. There are 5 components involved in this process, namely solar panels, inverter, electrical panel, utility meter and utility grid.

Firstly, the solar panel, which is situated outdoor, takes the energy emitted by the sun and transforms it into DC current. This is then turned into AC current by an inverter, which it also controls the electricity and production. The last component involved in the process of supplying electricity people need for domestic use is the electrical panel. This is responsible for the distribution of electricity into our house.

To make sure there is now waste of electricity, the utility meter is used to send back any energy surplus to the system through the meter. Furthermore, we can’t always rely on the energy received from the sun, and so, to cover the risk of remaining with no electricity, we can then use the utility grid. This is a second option to provide electricity when the one generated by sun is consumed.

The graph describes the production of electricity for domestic use by solar panels.

As according the diagram, five are the stages to produce energy by the sun.

To begin with, the solar panels, which are located on the roof of the home, have the function to absorb the rays of sunshine and convert them into DC current.

Once the energy has been produced, the inverter, collocated on the side of the home, transforms DC current into AC current and at the same time controls the electricity and production.

In the third stage, the electrical panel, sets next to the inverter, gives the electricity to all the home. Then, the Utility Meter controls that the solar energy produced, but not utilized , flows back to the grid through the meter.

Finally, the utility grid, furnishes electricity when who lives in the home needs more energy than the amount produced by solar panels.

the last line the meaning was not very clear

could anyone check my answer and if possible give any comments. what to improve.. this is my first time to post a sample answer..

The flow chart shows how the solar panels supply electricity for people's consumption.

It is clear that there are five distinct steps in the process, from solar energy absorption to the supplement of electricity to each residents.

At the first stage, the panels absorb energy directly from the sun and convert it to DC current then the inverter both changed the current from DC to AC and controls the electricity production, which is the second stage. The third stage is the distribution of power to each residentials, called Electrical panel.

The fourth and fifth stage are the stages for excess and inadequacy of electricity supply respectively. It the electricity is beyond the demand, it will flow back to the grid through the meter. By contrast, the grid will provide electricity once the solar panels produced an adequate energy.

QUESTION: The diagram below shows how solar panels can be used to provide electricity for domestic use.

The flow chart presents the process of generating electricity by solar panels for civil use. There are five major stages, from the initial energy absorbing to the final supply of electricity to every single home.

At the first stage, when sun rays reach solar panels, which are usually set up on the roof of a house directing towards the sun, solar energies are absorbed and transferred into DC current. It is then turned into AC currents by the inverter in the second stage, whose major function is to control the electricity and production. Next, the current flows into the electrical panel, ready to be distributed to plenty of residence.

Stage four and five all involve utility. If there is a surplus of electricity, it would flow back finally to the grid, the amount of which is measured by a meter. And utility grid is used to provide alternative electricity in case that the supply from solar panels is exhausted.

The diagram illustrates the process of generating electricity by solar panel for domestic purposes. We can clearly see that the process consists of five distinct steps involving five different components.

At first rays of sunshine fall vertically on the solar panel which is placed on the rooftop. Then the rays are converted into Direct Current. As the current is still not usable that’s why the energy is sent to the inverter for conversion. After the process of conversion by the inverter from DC to AC, the energy becomes usable to run domestic appliances.

But merely producing electricity is not the ultimate task; the entire system demands a control to maintain the flow of electricity properly. This is accomplished by the electric panel which ensures the supply of electricity in a controlled way.

There are two more components in the system namely utility metre and utility grid. The Utility metre ensures that if there is any surplus energy then it will transmit it to the grid to avoid hazards and mishaps. On the other hand, if the electricity produced by the solar panel drops then the utility grid will provide the system with adequate amount of electricity to meet the deficiency.

Utility grid takes the function of making up the need of electricity used by residents and storing excess electricity amount via Utility Meter.

1. in your second P why you used solar energies? I think its solar energy is absorbed.

2. why you used AC currents. I think its AC current.

Thank you for your feedbacks.

1. Do you mean that the term 'solar energies' is misused? I checked the word &;energy' and found that when it refers to power from sources such as electricity and coal, it is uncountable for sure. My mistake.

2. 'AC currents' is also a spelling mistake, and I am sorry for that.

Can anyone check my writing and give me some advice to improve?

The diagram illustrates the main steps and equipment used in the process of creating solar electricity for domestic utilization. Overall, the process involves the making of electricity using solar panels and how it is used.

Looking at the chart, to begin with, the energy from the sun is absorbed by the solar panels, which is placed on the roof of a house, in order to make DC current. Next, the current is transferred to the inverter, which converts it into AC current and controls the electricity and production.

Afterwards, the electricity is sent to the electrical panel so as to supply the house with the energy for home use. Finally, if there is any excess solar electricity, it will be transferred back to the grid by the utility meter. Otherwise, additional electricity will be distributed to the house by the utility grid if the usage exceeds the production of the energy.

Please rate me. Here is my take on this task.

The diagram illustrates the process on the usage of solar panels in the house. Overall, there are 5 utilities that are involve in the process.

To begin with, solar panels in the rooftop absorb energy from the sun and change it into DC current. The DC current changes into AC current via inverter. The inverter monitors the activity of electricity in the house. Then, the current passes through the electrical panels. The role of electtrical panel is to to spread the electricity around the house for usage. Lastly, an excessive amount of electricity flows through the utility meter and returns back to the utility grid. This allows the transfer of electricity for household usage when the solar panels produce an excess of amount of electricity.

All in all, the 5 utilities that are involve in the process on the usage of household solar panels are solar panels, inverter, electrical panel, utility meter and utility grid.

you are welcome Fettes

I would appreciate if anybody could check my mistakes.

The diagram illustrates the process of production of electricity for domestic use with the help of solar panels. It consists of 5 main resources i.e. Solar panels, inventor,electrical panel, utility meter ans lastly utility grid.

The flow chart illustrates how solar power generates electricity in houses. It is clear that there are five distinct stages in this process, from the initial absorption of solar energy to the household electricity usage.

At the first stage, the solar panels which are placed on the rooftop, absorbs energy from the sun and turns it into DC current. Secondly, the DC currents converts into AC current in the Inverter, which controls the electricity and its production. Next, the electricity is channeled to the Electrical Panel wherein the electricity in being distributed to the homes.

Stages four and five in the process both are involved in the utilization of electricity. The utility meter is responsible to flow back to the grid via the meter of any excess solar electricity. Following this, the utility grid will provides electricity when the amount of solar panels have exceed.

The process diagram shows how the domestic electricity needs can be fulfilled from Solar energy.

There are 5 components involved in converting solar energy for domestic use, These are Solar Panels, Inverter, Electric Panel, Utility Meter & Utility Grid.

Solar Panels are planed on top of the house or strcuture on outer side, so that to face the SUN maximum time of the day. Solar Panels absorbs the solar energy from solar rays & transfer the current to the Inveter. Since the current is in DC format, an Inverter is used to convert the current from DC to AC. The AC current is fed to the Electric Panel, which distributes the electricity to the household usage.

There can always be excess or shortage of electricity as per household demands. Any excess solar electricity is flown back to the grid through Electric Meter. If there is a shortage of solar electricity, the energy can be provided from the Utility Grid.

The figure illustrates the process used by solar panels to produce domestic use electricity. There are five components needed to complete the process, including solar panels, inverter, electrical panel, utility meter and utility grid.

Looking at the first three stages of the process, they are all about how to convert sunshine to electricity. Firstly, solar panels installed on the roof absorb energy from the sun and turn it into DC current. Secondly, inverter will convert DC current generated by solar panels into AC current and it controls the electricity and production as well. Thirdly, electrical panel distributes electricity produced to houses.

Fourth and fifth stages are about control utility. Utility meter ensures that any excess solar electricity will flow back to the grid through the meter. Utility grid provides electricity when usage exceeds the amount produced by solar panels.

The figure demonstrates the way that solar energy can be applied to supply electricity as a source of household energy.The system is made up of five components, including Solar Panels, Inventor, Electrical Panel, Utility Meter and Utility Grid.

The main parts of the system is Solar Panels, which can absorb sunlight and convert solar energy into electric energy in the form of DC current. Once the solar energy has been transformed into DC current, Inventor, controlling and producing the electricity, plays a role to convert DC current into AC current.After that, the produced electricity can be distributed to houses by means of Electrical Panel.

Since both the production and consumption of energy can not keep in a steady condition due to the uncertain supplement of sunlight, Utility Meter is used to provide a regular amount of energy. In case of the insufficient self-produced energy, Utility Grid can provide electricity immediately by compensating the shortage.

The diagram shows the process of electricity, that provides to the domestic use, is generated by the solar panels.

First, solar panels are put on the roof of house or a place that an energy is absorbed from sun and this energy turns into DC current. Next, Inverter plays an important role to convert DC current into AC current. It also controls the electricity and production. Then, the electrical panel distributes the electricity to your home or company.

At the follow stage, utility meter is an instrument to measure the electricity. The solar electricity will flow back to the grid though the meter, if an amount of the electricity is more than acceptable. Finally, utility grid provides electricity when you exceed the amount produced by your solar panels.

The diagram provide the clear overview of the stages involved in the functioning of a solar panel and equipment involved to produce electricity for the domastic use.

First of all, sunlight is observed by solar panel located in the roof top, was turn to DC current. Subsequently, solar panel send DC current to the inverter to convert form of energy into AC current, where electricity and production is controlled.

Secondly, electricity panel distribute the electricity for uses, once the inverter supplied the AC current. Next, Utility meter plays vital role to save the power by flow back the over supplied energy to the grid by using the required quantity of electricity. Finally, the utility grid furnished the available stored energy once the electricity produced by solar panel has finished.

To sum up, Solar power is converted to AC current through DC Phase, is monitered and distributed for the domestic uses through the 5 different stages.

Could you kindly comment on my work.

The diagram illustrates the process of how can solar panels be utilized for household electricity.

Overall, it can be observed that there are five ways to produce electricity from the heat of the sun. Solar panels are utilized to absorb energy then it goes through the inverter for convertion. Electricity is distributed through the panel for household consumption.

First of all, the energy coming from the sun is absorbed by the solar panels on the rooftop. The inverter converts the DC current to AC current for electrical production. Next, the electrical panel distributes the electricity inside the house.

If there is an excess solar electricity, a utility meter will serve as a storage box to store the current. A utility grid, which is located outside the house, will send a signal to the meter in order to provide the stored electricity for the household consumption.

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Telling how something works. From Reading to Writing In “To Build a Fire,” Jack London’s meticulous description of the steps needed to build a fire.

Published byDarrell Preston Modified over 2 years ago

Presentation on theme: "Telling how something works. From Reading to Writing In “To Build a Fire,” Jack London’s meticulous description of the steps needed to build a fire."— Presentation transcript:

3 Telling how something works. From Reading to Writing In “To Build a Fire,” Jack London’s meticulous description of the steps needed to build a fire in the Arctic gives the reader a keen awareness of what a traveler must do to survive. Process Description

4 Telling how something works. In everyday life, you frequently rely on process descriptions to figure out how something works or to learn how to do something. You use them to get from your home to an unfamiliar destination, to cook dinner, or to assemble furniture, for instance. Process Description

5 B a s i c s i n a B o x Process Description at a Glance RUBRIC Standards for Writing A successful process description should begin with a clear statement of the topic and your purpose explain to readers how to do something or how something works present the steps of the process in a logical order define any unfamiliar words or phrases and provide background information that is essential to the reader’s understanding use precise language and transitional words to describe each step clearly

6 Write what you care about and understand. Richard North Patterson, novelist Write what you care about and understand. Richard North Patterson, novelist One way to find an interesting process to describe is simply to observe people. Watch someone cook a dish you like, or study an athlete, artist, or family member in action. You may want to consider describing something you already know how to do well. Writing Your Process Description 1 Prewriting

7 Planning Your Process Description 1. Know your audience. How much will they know? What information will be most helpful? What special terms might they need to know? Consider whether a humorous or more serious tone best suits your audience. 2. Gather information. What do you need to know to describe your process clearly and completely? Also, consider whether you or your readers will need background information or certain skills or materials before beginning. 3. Organize your information. You might make a numbered list of the steps in chronological order before you begin writing.

8 Writing Your Process Description 2 Drafting Begin by explaining why the process is important or useful. Tell your readers what you will be describing and why. Use the following strategies to make your description clear and interesting: n Details: Include all the steps, described in enough detail for the readers to carry out each part of the process themselves. Also, list any equipment or materials readers might need.

9 Writing Your Process Description 2 Drafting n Definitions: Explain any words or phrases your readers might not know. n Illustrations: Use maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, or other illustrations when they will help your readers better understand the process. n Transitions: Use words such as first, next, before, after, or during to help readers know when each step occurs.

10 Writing Your Process Description 3 Revising TARGET SKILL CLARIFYING MEANING Vague phrases or words in your process description may leave readers uncertain of what to do. Including specific words and details will help make your process description easier for readers to follow.

11 Writing Your Process Description 4 Editing and Proofreading TARGET SKILL VERB TENSES Using the wrong tenses in your writing can cause confusion when you are giving directions. Check to see that your verb tenses—past, present, or future—are consistent and make sense when you edit your work.

A. Look at the four tables below. These show demographic trends in four different countries between 1996 and 2000. The numbers on the left and right of each table show the number of people in hundred thousands. Using the information in these tables, match sentences 1-13 on the next page with the appropriate country. Use the words and expressions in bold to help you.

Number of people

Number of people

Number of deaths

under 18 years of age

over 65 years of age

Country 1: Lycia

Country 2: Cilicia

Country 3: Moesia

Country 4: Cappadocia

For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

Describing & analysing tables

1. In which two countries was there a considerable discrepancy between married and single people between 1996 and 1998?

2. In which country was there a constant and considerable discrepancy between married and single people over the five-year period?

3. In which country was there a sudden and noticeable difference between those under 18 and those over 65 in 1998?

4. In which country did the number of under-18s rise dramatically between 1996 and 2000?

5. In which country did the number of under-18s increase slightly between 1996 and 2000?

6. In which country did the number of over-65s go up sharply between 1996 and 1998?

7. In which country did the number of married people decline significantly over the five-year period?

8. In which country did the number of deaths decrease significantly between 1996 and 1999?

9. In which two countries was there a slight decline in the number of married people between 1998 and 1999?

10. In which country was there a sharp drop in the number of under-18s between 1997 and 1998?

11. In which country was there a slight reduction in the number of deaths over the five-year period?

12. In which country was there a significant increase in the number of deaths between 1998 and 2000?

13. In which country did the number of deaths remain constant over the five-year period?

B. Now look at the table below, which shows the changes in economic activity in a town over a period of five years. The figures on the left and right show the number of people involved in these activities, in thousands. Write your own sentences to describe the situation in the town regarding the number of:

1. People employed in industry between 1996 and 2000.

2. People employed in retail between 1996 and 2000.

3. People employed in public services between 1999 and 2000.

4. People employed in tourism between 1996 and 2000.

5. Unemployed between 1998 and 2000.

6. People employed in industry compared with those in retail in 1996.

7. People employed in industry between 1998 and 1999.

Number of people

Number of people

Number of semi-skilled / skilled

Number of people

people in public services (including

police, doctors, bus drivers, etc.)

For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Look at these sentences and decide which object is being described in each one. Use the words in bold to help you. You will find the objects hidden in the word grid at the bottom of the page.

1. The most important part of this object is a strip of two different metals, one on top of the other. As they heat up , both metals expand, but one does it faster than the other. The strip bends and connects with a switch, which turns off the power supply. When the strip cools down , the metals contract and the switch is disconnected . (1 word)

2. This object has several component parts , most of which are made of plastic. A disc inserted into the object spins quickly. At the same time a thin beam of light strikes the disc and converts digital symbols into sounds. These sounds can be increased or decreased in volume by means of a button or dial. (3 words)

3. Liquid and gas are compressed in a hard metal tube. This can be released by pushing or squeezing a button which opens a valve. When the liquid-gas combination leaves the tube and is mixed with oxygen, it rapidly expands . (1 word)

4. This object is mainly made of aluminium. As it moves forward, air flows over two horizontal sections. As it accelerates , a vacuum is formed over the horizontal sections and the object is pulled into the air by the force of this vacuum. (1 word)

5. This object consists of two main parts; one is made mainly of plastic and metal, the other is made mainly of glass. Light enters the glass section and a small door in the device opens up when a button is pressed . At the same time, a smaller window called an aperture adjusts itself to control the amount of light. The light is then absorbed by a sheet of plastic coated in a special chemical. An image is formed and this can then be processed and developed into a two-dimensional paper-based object. (1 word)

6. A sharp blade inside a plastic container rotates very quickly. It chops or grinds anything it touches, which we can then use to produce soup, sauces and dressing. (2 words)

7. This is a very simple object which originated in China. A small piece of paper is lit with a match. It burns away until the flame ignites the chemical compound inside a cardboard tube. The result is a display of light and colour. (1 word)

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