diabetes mellitus research paper

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diabetes mellitus research paper

Diabetes mellitus research paper youtube

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Diabetes Mellitus Essay Research Paper Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Essay, Research Paper

Diabetes Mellitus, disease caused by defective carbohydrate metabolism and characterized by abnormally large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine. Diabetes mellitus affects approximately five percent of the United States population, about 10-12 million people, of whom about half remain undiagnosed. Diabetes mellitus can eventually damage the eyes, kidneys, heart, and limbs, and can endanger pregnancy. Proper treatment, however, can minimize these complications.

Diabetes mellitus is usually classified into two types. Type I, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), formerly called juvenile-onset diabetes, which occurs in children and young adults, has been implicated as one of the autoimmune diseases. Rapid in onset and progress, it accounts for about 10 to 15 percent of all cases. Type II, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), formerly called adult-onset diabetes, is usually found in persons over 40 years old and progresses slowly. Often it is not accompanied by clinical illness and is detected instead by elevated blood or urine glucose levels.

Cause and Course

Diabetes is considered a group of disorders with multiple causes, rather than a single disorder. The human pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin that facilitates the entry of the sugar glucose into all tissues of the body, providing energy for bodily activities. In a person with diabetes, however, the entry of glucose is impaired, a result either of a deficiency in the amount of insulin produced or of altered receptor cells (see Disease). Consequently, sugar builds up in the blood and is excreted in the urine. In the Type I diabetic, the problem is almost always a severe or total reduction in insulin production. In the Type II diabetic, the pancreas often makes a considerable quantity of insulin, but the hormone is unable to promote the entry of glucose into tissues. In some persons this resistance is due to prolonged obesity: A high level of blood sugar inactivates the tissue components, which, in turn, act as a target for insulin.

If untreated, Type I diabetes can be quickly fatal. It is accompanied by extreme thirst, weight loss, and fatigue. Because the body lacks sufficient energy from tissue glucose, it begins to break down stored fat. This produces increasing amounts of compounds called ketone bodies in the blood, making the blood acidic and interfering with respiration. Death from diabetic coma was the usual outcome of the disease before the discovery of insulin therapy. In both forms of diabetes, moderately elevated blood-sugar levels for many years can eventually cause kidney disease; impairment of sight due to rupture of blood vessels in the eyes; reduction of blood flow to the limbs, which can cause numbness and sometimes necessitates amputation; and alterations in nervous sensation. Diabetics also have an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Uncontrolled diabetes in a pregnant woman is associated with increases in stillbirths and birth defects. The life span of an inadequately treated diabetic is shortened by about one-third.

Detection of Type II diabetes in the absence of symptoms starts with measurement of the glucose level in urine. If a high level is detected, the amount of blood sugar is measured after an overnight fast. A high value indicates diabetes, and those with a normal level then undergo an oral glucose tolerance test in which the amount of glucose in the blood is measured after ingestion of a large amount of the sugar.

With adequate treatment most diabetics maintain blood-sugar levels within a normal or nearly normal range. This enables them to live normal lives and prevents some long-term consequences of the disease. For the Type I or Type II diabetic with little or no insulin production, therapy involves insulin injections and changes in diet. The diet requires distributing meals and snacks throughout the day so that the insulin supply is not overwhelmed and eating food that contains polysaccharides rather than simple sugars. (Polysaccharides must first be broken down in the stomach, therefore producing a much slower rise in blood sugar.) For Type II diabetics, most of whom are at least moderately overweight, the basics of therapy are diet control, weight reduction, and exercise. Weight reduction appears to partially reverse the condition of insulin resistance in the tissues. If a patient’s blood-sugar level is still high, the physician may add insulin injections. An oral sugar-lowering agent may be prescribed for persons who do not require insulin addition to control their diabetes, as well as for those who have trouble injecting themselves or whose diabetes is not controlled by insulin addition.

Some diabetes patients are now equipped with insulin pumps, carried on the body, that deliver insulin at preset times and rates. Such pumps improve control over blood-sugar levels, although acute but nonfatal complications such as ketoacidosis and infection of the infusion site are sometimes observed.

Diabetes Mellitus Essay Research Paper Diabetes MellitusDiabetes

Diabetes Mellitus Essay, Research Paper

Diabetes education is an important part of a treatment plan. Diabetes educators and health care providers are available in many areas to teach essential skills needed after initial diagnosis of the disease. Appropriate education teaches people with diabetes how to incorporate the management principles of the disease into their daily lives and minimize dependence upon the health care provider. An education program is helpful to learn more about the disease process, how to control and live with diabetes, and intermediate and long-term complications of the disease.

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder, due to improper utilization of glucose. The diabetic is less efficient in his metabolism and sugar accumulates in the blood and is eliminated in the urine. Diabetes is near the number 5 or 6 in death rate. Symptoms experienced by a diabetic are increased thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss despite an unusual intake of food. Itching of the skin, especially near the genitals is quite common. In addition to these long recognized symptoms, there are other evidences such as persistent skin infections, slow healing of wounds, and yeast infections of the genitalia.

The reason why a diabetic may feel hungry most of the time is that not enough glucose can enter the cell. Because the cells need sugar, the diabetic feels hungry. Severe diabetics have such disturbed body functioning that acids accumulate from the burning of fat, and may eventually cause coma. Today the greater proportion of diabetics must take one form of insulin, or other which also lower the blood sugar, but these are taken by mouth. Of the two million diabetics in the U.S., there are several hundred thousand which are oral hypoglycemic agents.

There are two types in the classification of diabetes. There is the primary disorder, which 90% of diabetics have, and the secondary disorder which only 10% of diabetics possess. Diabetics with the primary disorder are NIDDM (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). Diabetics with the secondary disorder are Insulin Dependent and usually acquire diabetes before forty years of age.

Not all individuals at genetic risk for IDDM ultimately develop it. Genetics are not sufficient for the development of the disease. Environmental triggers for the development of IDDM have long been suspected. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the incidence of IDDM is increased in both the spring and fall and is coincidental with epidemics of various viral disorders. It is quite evident that several viruses appear to trigger the subsequent immunologic response in genetically predisposed individuals who develop diabetes. Early IDDM is first identified by the appearance of active auto-immunity directed against the beta cells of the pancreas and their products. The combination of auto-immune attack on the beta cell and insulin by insulin auto antibodies progressively diminishes the effective circulating insulin level.

NIDDM diabetes is a very distinct disorder as compared with IDDM. NIDDM classically develops in an older patient population and may or may not require the use of therapeutic insulin. NIDDM is a heterogeneous disorder, characterized by variable plasma insulin levels associated with hyperglycemia and peripheral insulin resistance. Limitation in beta cell response to hyperglycemia appears to be a cornerstone of the pathophysiology of NIDDM. Regardless of the degree of peripheral insulin resistance, if the islets cells have an unlimited capacity to secrete insulin, then sufficient insulin should be available to overcome any degree of resistance.

Moderately elevated blood sugar levels for many years can eventually cause kidney disease, impairment of sight due to the rupture of blood vessels in the eyes, reduction of blood flow to the limbs which can cause numbness and sometimes require amputation, and some changes in nervous sensation. Diabetics also have an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. However, proper treatment can minimize these complications.

With proper treatment most diabetics maintain blood sugar levels within a normal or nearly normal range. This makes possible for Diabetics to live normal lives and prevents some long term consequences of the disease. For the Type I or Type II diabetic with little or no insulin production, therapy involves insulin injections and changes in diet. The diet requires distributing meals and snacks throughout the day so that the insulin supply is not overwhelmed. In addition to eating food that contains polysaccharides rather than simple sugars. Polysaccharides are first broken down in the stomach, consequently producing a much slower rise in blood sugar. For Type II diabetics, the basics of therapy are diet control, weight loss, and exercise. Weight loss appears to partially reverse the condition of insulin resistance in the tissues. The physician may add insulin injections, if a patient s blood sugar level is still high.

Establishing diabetes education and a health care team directed towards patient involvement in self care and prevention of complications is a model for a revolution in health care delivery and financing within the United States. At all levels –research, education, and clinical care- diabetes intervention is progressing rapidly and is at the cutting edge of its particular practice.

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

“Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.” (Association, National Center for Biotechnology Information , 2009, p. 1)

“The cause of type 1 and type 2 diabetes remains a mystery. Although genetic factors may play a role”. (Association, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, 2010, pp. 562-569) Diabetes mellitus generally results from an insulin deficiency or resistance. Insulin transports sugar into cells for use as energy and storage as glycogen which is a carbohydrate. Insulin also stimulates protein synthesis and free fatty acid storage. Insulin deficiency or resistance compromises the bodies access to essential nutrients for fuel and storage. Several processes called pathogens(capable of causing disease) are involved in the development of diabetes. The reasons of the abnormalities in carbohydrates, fats, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on certain tissues in the body.

The term Deficient insulin action, results from not enough insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue response to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action (a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another).

The Research paper on Case Study On Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

. the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 as fat cells in particular are resistant to insulin action therefore these people can . protein and transport of trigylcerides into adipose tissue. Thus insulin is a storage or anabolic hormone (Brown & Edwards 2008). . blood. Hyperosmolarity and depletion of intracellular water are a result which triggers sensors in the brain to interpret this .

If insulin secretion is blocked or impaired, then defects in the insulin action occur in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, the cause of the hyperglycemia. (Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, 1997, pp. 107-109) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is defined as an autoimmune disorder or simply put an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body actually attacks its own cells (What-is-Autoimmune-Disease).

This form of diabetes is brought on by a viral infection in which certain cells are destroyed which leads to absolute (complete) insulin deficiency and is usually diagnosed in childhood.

Many pediatric patients that have diabetes normally have Type 1 diabetes and therefore a lifetime dependency on insulin. “Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, an anabolic hormone.” (Diabetes-Mellitus—Definition-Causes-Symptoms-and-Treatment) In contrast Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a more progressive disorder in which the glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system known as the pancreas makes less insulin over time. Because the body’s cells have a reduced response to insulin, symptoms arise that include poor control of liver glucose (sugar) output, a decrease in cell function, and eventually cell failure.

The true cause of Type 2 diabetes is unknown; however, it usually occurs in adulthood, from heredity, excessive obesity and sedentary lifestyle. These lifestyle choices may play a major role in its development. For both types of diabetes the main feature is chronic high blood glucose (sugar) levels (Ignatavicius, 2006).

Risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus include obesity, physiologic or emotional stress, which can lead to an elevation of stress hormone levels.

In women sometimes pregnancy, which causes weight gain and increases levels of estrogen and placental hormones, may aggravate insulin output. There is also something called the metabolic syndrome which is a combination of medical disorders that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There are also some medications that can provoke the effects of insulin, including thiazide diuretics, adrenal corticosteroids, and hormonal contraceptives (Mackay, 2004).

The Term Paper on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

. confirmed by fasting plasma glucose and history. In addition, Diabetes mellitus (DM) 2 or type 2 diabetes is more common than diabetes mellitus type 1 and is prevalent . deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or resistance to insulin. It is characterized by hyperglycaemia .

Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

There are several different types of diabetes mellitus; they may differ in cause, clinical course, and treatment. The major classifications of diabetes are: * Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) is caused by B-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency a) Immune mediated

* Type 2 diabetes (previously referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) ranges from those with predominant insulin resistance associated with relative insulin deficiency, to those with a predominantly insulin secretory defect with insulin resistance (Alberti, 2007).

Insulin is secreted by beta cells, which are one of four types of cells in the islets of Langerhans (dendritic cells = antigen-presenting immune cells) in the pancreas. Insulin is an anabolic, or storage hormone. When a person eats a meal, insulin secretion increases and moves sugar from the blood into muscle, liver, and fat cells. In those cells, insulin transports and metabolizes glucose for energy.

Later it stimulates storage of sugar in the liver and muscle (in the form of glycogen).

Following this it signals the liver to stop the release of glucose, then enhances storage of dietary fat in adipose which is a storage tissue. Finally it accelerates the transport of amino acids (derived from dietary protein) into the body’s cells. “Insulin also inhibits the breakdown of stored glucose, protein, and fat. During fasting periods (between meals and overnight), the pancreas continuously releases a small amount of insulin (basal insulin); another pancreatic hormone called glucagon (secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans) is released when blood glucose levels decrease and stimulate the liver to release stored glucose.

The insulin and the glucagon together maintain a constant level of glucose in the blood by stimulating the release of glucose from the liver. Initially, the liver produces glucose through the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis).

The Essay on Type 2 Diabetes Glucose Cells Blood

. cells develop a resistance to insulin. This causes the liver to function without control, so it continues to release glucose. Without the cells picking up glucose . people with type 2 diabetes. This is when the cells do not get enough glucose and begin to burn fat . and African heritage are also at greater risk. Canadian Diabetes Association web About/Facts Index. asp MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia .

Glycogen is the storage form for glucose in the liver and muscles. Glycogenolysis is the conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver. After 8 to 12 hours without food, the liver forms glucose from the breakdown of non-carbohydrate substances, including amino acids (gluconeogenesis)” (Hamouda, 2012).

Type 1 diabetes treatment and Study

This form of diabetes is immune-mediated in over 90% of cases and idiopathic in less than 10%. The rate of pancreatic B cell destruction is quite variable, being rapid in some individuals and slow in others. Type 1 diabetes is usually associated with ketosis in its untreated state. It occurs at any age but most commonly arises in children and young adults with a peak incidence before school age and again at around puberty. It is a catabolic disorder in which circulating insulin is virtually absent, plasma glucagon is elevated, and the pancreatic B cells fail to respond to all insulinogenic stimuli. Exogenous insulin is therefore required to reverse the catabolic state, prevent ketosis, reduce the hyperglucagonemia, and reduce blood glucose. Clinical manifestations of all types of diabetes include the “three Ps”: polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.

Polyuria (increased urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst) occur as a result of the excess loss of fluid associated with osmotic diuresis. The patient also experiences polyphagia (increased appetite) resulting from the catabolic state induced by insulin deficiency and the breakdown of proteins and fats. Other symptoms include fatigue and weakness, sudden vision changes, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, dry skin, skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal, and recurrent infections (Hamouda, 2012, p. para. 8).

The onset of type 1 Diabetes may also be associated with sudden weight loss or nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pains. (Association, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, 2010)

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the impact of diabetes mellitus on the central nervous system (Lukovits TG, 1999).Clinically and epidemiologically, it has been shown that diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents (Kannel WB, 1979), and may underlie many of the neuropsychological and cognitive deficits observed in diabetic patients (CM, 1988).

The Term Paper on Presentation On Diabetes Patients Patient Education

. stroke and peripheral vascular disease than someone without diabetes. Patient with diabetes- mellitus have a shorter life expectancy than those without . , the patients who have had their diabetic for some time but needed to go on insulin, newly diagnosed patients who needed . selection of, motivated participants which is essential to studies in which patients has to be an active participants. However, .

Few studies have sought to establish the pathophysiological mechanisms that occur before these deficits appear, with a view to detecting early subclinical abnormalities that could serve as markers of the risk for stroke in patients who might benefit from preventive treatment.

The study I read was performed in 15 insulin-dependent diabetics (eight men and seven women) with no history of central neurological symptoms. Their ages ranged from 27 to 59 years (mean 46±8 years) and the mean time since diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was 19±6 years. The characteristics of the patients are given in the Table below. The study was been reviewed by the hospital’s ethics clinical committee, and before being enrolled each patient gave written informed consent.

Characteristics of study subjects

Arterial hypertension (yes/no) 5/12

Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 214±49

Time from diagnosis of IDDM (years) 19±6

Hemoglobin A1C (%) 8.19±0.8

Diabetic nephropathy (no/micro/macro albuminuria) 10/1/4

Diabetic retinopathy (yes/no) 7/8

Diabetic neuropathy (yes/no) 7/8

IDDM, Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

The study dealt with the Cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) which is the capacity of cerebral arteries and arterioles to dilate, thus increasing blood flow in areas of decreased perfusion pressure (WJ, 1991).

It is one of the first mechanisms of the brain to be activated in cases of hemodynamic compromise and is an early indicator of its existence (Baron JC, 1981).

The chemical Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, induces dilatation of the cerebral microvasculature and has been widely used in assessing CVR in large series of patients with different cerebrovascular disorders. (Julio F. Jiménez-Bonilla, 2001).

The study concluded that Insulin-dependent diabetic patients with no clinical history of neurological disorders present baseline abnormalities in cerebral perfusion and a decrease in CVR in extensive areas of the brain.

The Research paper on Pathophysiology Case Study 3

. ) Good nutritional diets play a significant role in diabetes management, the recent study encourages diabetic patient to eat more fresh fruits, vegetables, 2 grams . body cells failure to react to body insulin and it affects majority cases of diabetes patients ( CDC,2010) but with proper nutrition and .

The decrease in CVR and the behavior of baseline subclinical abnormalities after administration of acetazolamide suggested the existence of chronic cerebrovascular disease, the severity of which varied between patients and was better assessed with this technique than with baseline SPET (PET scan).

In addition, the introduction of acetazolamide made it possible to classify baseline irregularities as being of probable metabolic origin or of probable ischemic origin. They concluded that the post-acetazolamide brain SPET is a valid tool which, in comparison with baseline SPET, provided additional information on cerebral perfusion in insulin-dependent diabetes. The technique should prove useful in evaluating future preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of complications in diabetics. (Julio F. Jiménez-Bonilla, 2001)

The main goal of diabetes treatment is to normalize insulin activity and blood glucose levels to reduce the development of vascular and neuropathic complications. Insulin is indicated for type 1 diabetes as well as for type 2 diabetic patients with insulin openia whose hyperglycemia does not respond to diet therapy either alone or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. The therapeutic goal for diabetes management is to achieve normal blood glucose levels (euglycemia) without hypoglycemia and without seriously disrupting the patient’s usual lifestyle and activity. There are five components of diabetes management

• Nutritional management – teaching the patient to eat properly and manage their diet accordingly. • Exercise • Monitoring – Use of a glucose meter and watching their numbers. • Pharmacologic therapy – medicines that help level off sugars in their system. • Education – finding out all the information they can about the disease so they will be informed as to the preventative measures taken to lead a more normal life.

Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. (1997).

Diabetes Care, 20:1183-97. CITATIONS AND CLINICIANS’ NOTES: ETIOLOGY, PREDICTION, AND INCIDENCE OF DIABETES. (2005).

Current Medical Literature: Diabetes, 22(2), 32-33. Alberti, K. M. (2007).

International Diabetes Federation: a consensus on Type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabetic Medicine, 24(5), 451-463. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02157.x. Association, A. D. (2009, January).

The Term Paper on Diabetes People Type Glucose

. two main types of diabetes. These are: o Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin dependent diabetes o Type 2 diabetes, also known as non insulin dependent diabetes Type 1 diabetes develops . if the body is unable to produce any insulin. This type of diabetes .

National Center for Biotechnology Information . Retrieved from PMC US National Library of Medicine : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613584/ Association, A. D. (2010, January).

Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, pp. 562-569. Baron JC, B. M. (1981).

Reversal of focal “misery-perfusion syndrome” by extra-intracranial arterial bypass in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A case study. Stroke, 12: 454-459. CM, R. (1988).

Neurobehavioral complications of type I diabetes. Examination of possible risk factors. Diabetes Care, 11: 499-505. Diabetes-Mellitus—Definition-Causes-Symptoms-and-Treatment. (n.d.).

Retrieved 12 15, 2012, from www.healthguidance.org: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/7366/1/Diabetes-Mellitus—Definition-Causes-Symptoms-and-Treatment.html Hamouda, M. (2012, May 24).

. of insulin. With DM type 2, the patient needs more insulin to keep the blood glucose level down. The obese and those who have type 1 diabetes are .

. has no cure. Diabetics must learn to control their diabetes through special diets, regular self-testing of blood glucose levels, and insulin injections.It takes .

Type Ii Diabetes Insulin Blood Diet

. . Type 1 diabetics need to time meals with insulin doses to keep blood glucose levels . the United States. Diabetes mellitus prevents the body's cells from using food . diabetes. Unlike Type I patients, most people with Type II don't have to take insulin .

Ive Diet Diabetes Insulin Blood

. blood sugars or glucose. In addition, inadequate sleep can lead to development of insulin resistance. This is a pre diabetes state in which the cells .

. glucose in the bloodstream referred to as 'high blood sugar.' Once the diagnosis is made, treatment with injected insulin begins immediately. Because type II diabetes .

Type 2 Diabetes Insulin Glucose Patients

. diabetes cannot be cured most type II diabetics are not insulin . blood glucose levels of a patient and comparing them statistically with normal glucose . of Diabetes Mellitus. 1997. Diabetes Care, . cell activity, reduced insulin clearance, lower insulin .

Endocrine Research Paper Pathophysiology: Diabetes Mellitus

. Many people know of diabetes however most do not know that there are different types. For a Type 1 patient, an autoimmune disorder causes its own immune system to attack itself. In this case the immune system views the islet cells in the pancreas, which produces insulin, as foreign, and attacks it. This results in the body forming anti-bodies against these “foreign” cells which ultimately stops the production of insulin in the body (Norman). This form is known as insulin-dependent diabetes and currently affects about 22,000,000 million in the world which makes up only 10% of all diabetics (Diabetes Facts). For Type 1 diabetes, there is no definite cause as to why people get this form of diabetes, but more often than not, it is inherited because of a genetic tendency (Norman). Though genetic predisposition is thought to be the main culprit for this form of diabetes, it’s not the only cause. It can also be due to viral infections such as measles, influenza, polio or the mumps. Environmental, diet, chemicals and drugs have also shown to have some relation to this form of diabetes.

Endocrine Research Paper Pathophysiology: Diabetes Mellitus

population)(Diabetes Facts). When people think about epidemics that affect the world today, the first ones that usually come to mind are those that kill of millions of people every year such as HIV, malaria, or the influenza. There are even those that haven’t been as deadly but have gained extreme notoriety such as the H1N1 virus, cholera, and anthrax. For this paper forget about HIV, H1N1, cholera, and the influenza; introducing Diabetes mellitus: a silent epidemic. Diabetes mellitus or commonly…

Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death listed in the United States. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness. “In 1996 diabetes contributed to more than 162,000 deaths”(Lewis 1367). “Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but a group of disorders with glucose intolerance in common” (McCance 674). Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar) and results from defective insulin production, secretion, and…

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: A Research

a serious metabolic disorder called Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. While not managed by insulin injections, it is nevertheless quite serious and has a number of progressing symptoms that, if not treated properly, can result in cardiovascular, renal and neurological problems, as well as amputation, ocular issues, and even cognitive dysfunction. Type II Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes or aadult onset diabetes. It is a medical disorder that, due to…

Essay on The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is a chronic, genetically determined, debilitating disease that affects every organ system. There are two major types of diabetes: Type I and Type II. Type I or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas and is usually, but not always diagnosed in childhood. People with type I diabetes must take insulin shots in order to survive. Type II diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes…

This paper deals about the study of diabetes mellitus, the pathology, types of diabetes, further complications if not controlled and management for the prevention of this disease. Diabetes refers to a set of several different diseases. All types of diabetes result in too much sugar, or glucose, in the blood. To understand why this happens it helps to understand how the body usually works. When you eat, your body breaks down your food into simpler forms such as glucose. The glucose goes into your…

Diabetes Mellitus Essay examples

Diabetes mellitus (DM) or simply diabetes, is a chronic health condition in which the body either fails to produce the amount of insulin needed or it responds inadequately to the insulin secreted by the pancreas. The three primary types of diabetes are: Diabetes Type 1 and 2, and during some pregnancies, Gestational diabetes. The cliché for all three types of diabetes is high glucose blood levels or hyperglycemia. The pathophysiology of all types of diabetes mellitus is related to the hormone insulin…

Research Paper on Type 2 Diabetes

prevalence of type 2 diabetes is skyrocketing alarmingly to epidemic proportions. According to King, Aubert and Herman (1998), in the year 2000 there were 150 million people with type 2 diabetes worldwide, and this number is expected to double by 2025. This explosive increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence is also associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. (Dankner, Abdul-Ghani, Gerber, Chetit, Wainstein and Raz, 2007). This global increase in diabetes will occur because of…

Caroline SOC 005 Dr November 15th, 2011 Diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes is a disease rapidly increasing throughout the world today, and it is often referred to as the world’s modern epidemic. According to The World Health Organization (WHO) there were 171 million people suffering from diabetes worldwide in 2000. They are expecting this number to be doubled by year 2050 with 366 million diagnosed people. The organization’s most recent “calculations indicate that worldwide almost 3 million deaths…

1. Discuss the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition in which the body has the inability to produce insulin or react normally to insulin. The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is extremely complex, as diabetes mellitus is characterized by different types but share common symptoms and complications. Diabetes mellitus is classified in two types: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although the disease is "characterized by different etiologies"…

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