beowulf beginning

beowulf beginning

Beowulf Essay Research Paper Beowulf begins with

Beowulf Essay, Research Paper

Beowulf begins with a history of the Danish kings, starting with Shild and leading up to the reign of king Hrothgar, Shild?s great-grandson. Hrothgar is well loved by his people and is successful in war. He builds a lavish hall ,called Herot, to house his vast army, and when the hall is finished the Danish soldiers gather under its roof to celebrate.

Grendel, a monster in human shape who lives at the bottom of a nearby swamp, is provoked by the singing and horsing around of Hrothgar?s followers. He appears at the hall late one night and kills thirty of the warriors in their sleep. For the next twelve years the fear of Grendel?s potential fury casts a shadow over the lives of the Danes. Hrothgar and his advisers can think of nothing to appease the monster?s anger.

Beowulf ,the prince of the Geats, hears about Hrothgar?s troubles, he gets fourteen of his bravest Geats, and sets sail from his home in Sweden. The Geats are greeted by the members of Hrothgar?s court, and Beowulf boasts to the king of his previous successes as a warrior, particularly his successes in fighting sea monsters. Hrothgar welcomes the arrival of the Geats, hoping that Beowulf will live up to his reputation. During the banquet that follows Beowulf?s arrival, Unferth, a Danish soldier, voices doubt about Beowulf?s past accomplishments, and Beowulf, in turn, accuses Unferth of killing his brothers. Before retiring for the night, Hrothgar promises Beowulf great treasures if he meets with success against the monster.

Grendel appears on the night of the Geats? arrival at Herot. Beowulf, true to his word, wrestles the monster barehanded. He tears off the monsters? arm at the shoulder, but Grendel escapes, only to die soon afterward at the bottom of his snake-infested swamp. The Danish warriors, who had fled the hall in fear, return singing songs in praise of Beowulf?s triumph. Hrothgar keeps his word and rewards Beowulf with the treasures he had promised. After another banquet all of the soldiers go to sleep.

Not knowing the warriors, Grendel had a mother and she was plotting to take revenge for her son. She arrives at the hall when everybody is sleeping and carries off Esher, Hrothgar?s chief advisor. Beowulf, rising to the occasion, offers to dive to the bottom of the lake, find the monsters? home, and destroy her. he and his men follow the monster?s tracks to the cliff overlooking the lake where Grendel?s mother lives. They see Esher?s bloody head floating on the surface of the lake. While preparing for battle, Beowulf ask Hrothgar to protect his warriors , and to send his treasures to his uncle, king Higlac, if he doesn?t return alive.

During the ensuing battle Grendel?s mother carries Beowulf to her underwater home. After a terrible fight Beowulf kills the monster with a magical sword that he finds on the wall of her home. He also finds Grendel?s dead body, cuts off the head, and returns to land, where the Geat and Danish warriors are waiting for him. Beowulf has now cleaned Denmark of the race of evil monsters.

The warriors return to Hrothgar?s court, where the Danish king delivers a sermon to Beowulf on the dangers of pride and on the fleeting nature of fame and power. The Danes and Geats prepare a feast in celebration of the death of the monsters. In the morning the Geats hurry to their boat, anxious to begin the trip home. Beowulf says farewell to Hrothgar and tells the old king that if the Danes ever need help he will gladly come to their assistance. Hrothgar presents Beowulf with more treasures and they embrace, emotionally, like father and son.

The Geats sail home. After recounting the story of his battles with Grendel and Grendel?s mother, Beowulf tell king Higlac about the feud between Denmark and their enemies, The Hathoboards. He describes the proposed peace settlement, in which Hrothgar will give his daughter Freaw to Ingeld, king of the Hathoboards, but he predicts that the peace settlement wont last long. Higlac rewards Beowulf for his bravery with territory, swords, and houses.

The meeting between Higlac and Beowulf marks the end of the first part of the poem. In the next part is dead, and Beowulf has been king of the Geats for fifty years. A thief steals a jeweled cup from a sleeping dragon who avenges his loss by flying through the night burning down houses, including Beowulf?s own hall and throne. Beowulf goes to the cave where the dragon lives, vowing to destroy it single-handed. He?s an old man now, however, and his strength is not as great as it was when he fought against Grendel. During the battle Beowulf breaks his sword against the dragon?s side; the dragon, enraged, engulfs Beowulf in flames and wounds him in the neck. All of Beowulf?s followers flee except Wiglaf, who rushes through the flames to assist the aging warrior. Wiglaf stabs the dragon with his sword, and Beowulf, in a final act of courage, cut the dragon in half with his knife.

Yet the damage is done. Beowulf realizes that he?s dying, that he has fought his last battle. He asks Wiglaf to bring him the dragon?s storehouse of treasures; seeing the jewels and gold will make him feel that the effort has been worthwhile. He instructs Wiglaf to build a tomb to be known as ?Beowulf?s Tower? on the edge of the sea. After Beowulf dies, Wiglaf admonishes the troops who deserted their leader when he was fighting against the dragon. He tells them that they have been untrue to the standards of bravery, courage, and loyalty that Beowulf has taught.

Wiglaf sends a messenger to a nearby encampment of Geat soldiers with instructions to report the outcome of the battle. The messenger predicts that the enemies of the Geats will feel free to attack that know that their king is dead. Wiglaf supervises the building of the funeral pyre. In keeping with Beowulf?s instructions, the dragon?s treasures is buried alongside Beowulf?s ashes in the tomb. The poem ends as it began with the funeral of a great warrior. The major theme of this poem was the battle between good and evil.

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юeodcyninga, юrym gefrunon,

hu рa жюelingas ellen fremedon.

Oft Scyld Scefing sceaюena юreatum,

monegum mжgюum, meodosetla ofteah,

egsode eorlas. Syррan жrest wearр

feasceaft funden, he южs frofre gebad,

weox under wolcnum, weorрmyndum юah,

oрюжt him жghwylc юara ymbsittendra

ofer hronrade hyran scolde,

gomban gyldan. южt wжs god cyning!

of those clan-kings, heard of their glory,

how those nobles performed courageous deeds.

Often Scyld, Scef's son, from enemy hosts

from many peoples seized mead-benches;

and terrorised the fearsome Heruli after first he was

found helpless and destitute, he then knew recompense for that,

he waxed under the clouds, throve in honours,

  • 1. English Literature Literature is characterized by beauty of expression and form and by university of intellectual and emotional appeal. Literature shows us not only what a society is like in a certain age, but also what individual feel about it, what they hope from it, and how they can change it or escape from it. Literature gives readers an insight into the tradition, custom, beliefs, attitudes, folklore, values of the age in which it is written.Prof. MSc. Maura Xavier Garcia

2. How to study Literature? a. analytical approach  The elements of fiction include plot, character, setting, point of view, theme, symbol, allegory, style, and tone. b.thematic approach  What is the story, the poem, the play, or the essay about? c. historical approach  It aims at illustrating the historical development of literature. All the Literature exists in time and as such bears the unmistakable imprint of the period and culture in which it is written.  Other approaches       Marxist/sociological criticism psychoanalytical criticism feminist/gender criticism mythic and archetypal criticism reader-response criticism formalist /new criticism structuralism deconstructuralism 3. literature 1): pagan: oral sagas: the Song of Beowulf 2): Christian: copied by the monk. The influence of the Christianity upon language and culture. Two ecclesiastic poets: Caedmon and Cynewulf 3. the Song of Beowulf----England’s national epic creation time: written in 10-th century  plot and theme: fight with Grendel fight with Grendel’s mother fight with firedrake death and funeral 4. Asterix 5. Obelix 6. Asterix_&_Obelix___ Once_Upon_A_Time_ In_Armorica.wmv 7. 55BC 55 BC 8. The Roman Baths in Bath England Feature Video From BathTV.wmv Roman Baths in Bath.wmv 9. 43CE Romans invade Britain. Encountered the Celts. Romans build roads, villas, sewage systems, huge buildings, and forts. Introduced Christianity. Introduced army organization 420CE Romans leave. 10. The Saxon Chronicles Movie Trailer.wmv 11. •Anglo-Saxon society.–Lived in tribal groups with a high class of warriors.–Kings emerged as society developed. •Spoke Old English. •This was the language that Beowulf was written in. •Became Christian but still valued heroic ideals and traditional heroes. •Their culture valued human contact, family, virtue, and a good story. •They feared humiliation and loneliness in their lives. In addition, the Anglo-Saxons desiredrichness, power, and appreciated heroic actions of warriors. 12. •787CE Viking raids begin •871-899CE saxon King Alfred the Great becomes King of England.–Established education systems, rebuilt monasteries. –Contributed with artfacts –Fought Danes and forced them from Wessex. –Unified Anglo-Saxons under one king to resist the Viking invasions. –Danes ruled in the North, Anglo-Saxons in the South. 13. Asterix_And_the_Viki ng_19.wmv Asterix_ANd_The_Vi king_part_2.wmv 14. the Anglo-Saxon period (4491066) historical background Three conquests: Roman conquest in 43 AD; Anglo-Saxon conquest in 449; Norman conquest in 1066 43 AD, Roman conquered Britain ,making the latter a province of Roman Empire; the withdrawal of Roman troops ,the Teutonic (Germanic people) tribes, esp., the Anglos conquered the island and called it Angle-land, then England, their language is Anglo-Saxon old English. 1. 15. Beowulf towers above all otherAnglo-Saxon literature, not only because it is a powerful poem about people’s hero written in true epic style, but also because it tells in artistic form the tale in a leisurely way, full of elaborations in legendary details, and the verse rises at places to heights of poetic grandeur. 16. The significance of Beowulf:  This glorious epic presents us a vividpicture of the life of Anglo-Saxon people and highly praises the brave and courageous spirit of the fighting against the elemental forces.  The epic reflects the situations the epoch of pagan tribalism and of the era of the Christianized feudal society.  The epic gives the vivid portrayal of a 17. characters • Beowulf: main character, a hero featuring all the qualities of an epic hero. He has superhuman strength and is fearless and brave in battle. (Geats)• Hrothgar: the king of the village that Beowulf saves from Grendel. (Danes)• Grendel: a monster terrorizing Hrothgar’s village. • Grendel’s mother: a monster set out to avenge her son’s death. 18. Plot (movie here)  Beowulf travels to Hrothgar’s village to save them from  Grendel, a terrifying monster eating their warriors. An epic battle ensures Beowulf is the winner. Of course, Grendel’s mother comes seeking vengeance for her son’s death. Again, Beowulf is called upon to save them all, and he fights heroically and defeats the evil monster. After being vastly rewarded and refusing an offer from Hrothgar to be his heir, Beowulf makes the long trek back to his homeland where he becomes a mighty and generous king for many years. He fights a massive dragon who is threatening his 19.  Anglo-Saxon literature began as an oral tradition.Stories, poems, and songs were all told aloud and passed from generation to generation orally through minstrels (also called scops).  Poems traditionally had a strong beat, alliteration, and no rhyme.  Caesura: “a cutting.” A break in a line of poetry, used in Old English to depict a half line. We use a comma for a modern effect.  i.e. Da com of moreunder mistheleopum ―Out from the marsh, from the foot of the hills.‖  Kenning: derived from the Norse word ―kenna‖ which means ―to know, to recognize.‖ It is a compact metaphor that functions as a name. i.e. helmberend: ―Helm bearer‖ or ―warrior‖ 20. Characteristics of ―Beowulf‖ a. the mixture of pagan elements with Christian coloring. The most outstanding example is the frequent reference in the epic to ―Wyrd‖ (fate) as the decisive factor in human affaires, while on other occasions “God” or “Lord” is also mentioned as the omniscient and 21. Pagan vs. Christianity in Beowulfpagan  Strong naturepresence  Strength of the warrior God is mentioned bytwo of the main characters in the poem: Beowulf and Hrothgar.  Grendel as Lucifer  Both are outcasts  Perform a task forGod  Grendel is described as a son or descendant of Cain, a clear Biblical 22. Characteristics of ―Beowulf‖ b. the frequent use of metaphors and understatements.“Ring giver” is used for king, “Swan road”, “whale-path” or “seal bath” for the sea, “wave-traveler” or “sea-wood” for ship, “shield-bearer”, “battle-hero” or “spear-fighter” for soldier. 23. kenning  KENNING  Light-of-battle  Fighting-gear, battle- MEANINGSword  Body armorgear  Blood  Battle-sweatother words:  Life would have ended [. ] under wide earth Would have died  Handle Hilt  Lake, pond, swamp  Mere 24. Characteristics of ―Beowulf‖ c. Beowulfis written in alliterative verse. Its rhythm depends upon accent and alliteration. That is, the beginning of two or more words in the same line with the same sound or letter. The lines are made up of two short halves, separated by a pause. No rhyme is used; but a musical effect is produced by giving each half line two strongly accented syllables. Each full line, therefore, has four accents, three of which usually begin with 25. • Most famous of early Germanic poems • Written anywhere between 400-1000, but mostlikely after the 500s. Period of the barbarian invasions. • Theauthor is unknown, but likely to beChristian. It is likely that a few different authors elaborated on the tale. • Takes place in Sweden, Denmark, andFrisia. – The Norse were at this time attacking 26. Beowulf  The events described in the poemtake place in the late 5th century, after the Anglo-Saxons had begun migration and settlement in England, and beforethe beginning of the 7th century, a time when the Saxons were either newly arrived or in close contact with their fellow Germanic kinsmen in Scandinavia and Northern Germany. 27. Beowulf anonymous useless to men as of yore it was. Then about that barrow the battle-keen rode, atheling-born, a band of twelve, lament to make, to mourn their king, chant their dirge, and their chieftain honor. They praised his earlship, his acts of prowess worthily witnessed: and well it is that men their master-friend mightily laud, heartily love, when hence he goes from life in the body forlorn away. 28. /ˈ beɪəˈw ʊlf/ Funeral pyre lit and Beowulf burned.  [Question: why is this old woman placed here in the book? Is this a woman's comment on all the men's actions and male dominated society that creates such continual misery with their warrior ways'?]  OLD WOMAN predicts that the Geats will be overrun. She seems to know 'what goes round comes around' and 'they'll get theirs.' They build the tower and twelve Geats ride around the tower praising Beowulf, best of kings.  http://te  29. • Beowulf is the most well-known Anglo-Saxonpoem, and is a form of poetry called the epic. • Such other examples are Homer’s The Iliad and The Odessey.• Long narrative that celebrates ahero’s long journeys and heroic deeds. • J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Ring series andGeorge Lucas’ Stars Wars could be called modern epics. • Characteristics include a noble hero whosecharacter traits reflect their society’s ideals. The hero performs brave acts and appears 30.  The epic poem Beowulf strengthens the Heroic Code.This code was derived from the Anglo-Saxons’ Germanic roots, and called for strength, courage, and loyalty in warriors. It also required kings to be hospitable, generous, and have great political skills. This code was a basis for Anglo-Saxon honor. • Universal themes of epic poetry • Good vs. evil • Beowulf vs. Grendel• Isolation • Courage and honor • Beowulf is fearless and brave while fighting the monsters.• Gods or semi-divine creatures • Grendel, Grendel’s mother, the dragon• Tale involves the fate of an entire race 31. A Lenda De Beowulf (Trailer) LEGENDADO.wmv 32. Describe the scene To which part may it refer 33.  Beowulf is an example of Medieval Anglo-Saxon poetry which waswritten by monks c1100. Beowulf describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century. The poem of Beowulf is distinguished by its heavy use of alliteration which was used instead of the modern rhyme. There are therefore many examples of alliteration in Beowulf, often three examples in every line. Like a rhyme, alliteration makes a poem easy to remember. Examples from Beowulf areas follows:Cunningly creeping, a spectralstalker Hot-hearted Beowulf was bent upon battle He had often haunted Hrothgar's house 34. the_Norman_Conquest.wmv 35. •1066CE Norman Conquest by William the Conqueror. –From Norman French. –Defeated Danes and Anglo-Saxons. –Officially ended Anglo-Saxon era and brought about the beginning of the Medieval Period. cru·sade (kr-sd) n. 1. often Crusade Any of the military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. 2. A holy war undertaken with papal sanction. 3. A vigorous concerted movement for a cause or against an abuse. See Synonyms at campaign. intr.v. cru·sad·ed, cru·sad·ing, cru·sades To engage in a crusade. 36. the Anglo-Norman period (1066— 1350)historical background Norman Conquest of Anglo-Saxon England, under William, Duke of Normandy after the battle of Hastings in 1066, accelerated the development of feudalism in England. The middle ages: the dark age (449-16-th century)1. 37. Literature - romance  a. Geoffrey’s history: a source book of literature  b. the work of the French Writers: Arthurian legends  c. Riming/rhythmic chronicles: history in doggerel verse (cordel)  d. metrical romances, or tales in verse. 38. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340—1400)1.his life born in a wine merchant family, page to ElizabethCountess of Ulster, wife of Edward III's third son he had broad and intimate acquaintance with persons high and low in all walks of life and knew well the whole 39. His literary career French period (1360-1372) in French ― Romance of the rose‖ b. Italian period in Latin ―the legend of Good Women‖ a.(1372-1385) 40. Chaucer’s contributions to English Literature and Language  a. a master of realism b.founder of English literarylanguage  c.Chaucer’s English: London dialect  d.Father of English poetry : heroic couplet (The heroic couplet is an iambic pentameter heaving the lines rhyming in pairs). 41. The Canterbury Tales  It is one of the most famous worksin all literature. It begins with a general prologue that explains the occasion for the narration of the tales and gives a description of the pilgrims who narrate the tales, and then follow the twentyfour tales that make up the bulk of the book, plus the separate prologues and the ―links that accompany some of‖ the tales. 42. The Characters The Knight The Miller The Reeve (first specialist in state management) The Cook The Man of Law The Wife of Bath The Friar The Summoner(give notes to court attendance)The Clerk The Merchant The Squire The Franklin(not in feudal servitude) 49 43. More Characters The Physician The Pardoner The Shipman The Prioress The Monk The Nun’s Priest The Yeoman (a commoner who cultivates his own land)The Manciple (purchase and storage food)The Parson (priest of independent parish) 50 44. understand that Chaucer the Poet actually wrote The Canterbury Tales, but Chaucer the Pilgrim tells them. Making himself a character in the Tales enables Chaucer to inject opinions without claiming they are his own, 45. Structure and Themes A prologue precedes each character’s tale The prologue introduces the character personally The tale reveals more through the character’s chosen subject and treatment of that subject Major themes include morality and genuine vs. false pilgrimage 52 46. The Wife of Bath by Geoffrey Chaucer in The Canterbury AndTales she obeyed him in every thingThat mighte do him pleasance or liking. And thus they live unto their lives' end In perfect joy; and Jesus Christ us send Husbandes meek and young, and fresh in bed, And grace to overlive them that we wed. And eke I pray Jesus to short their lives, That will not be governed by their wives. And old and angry niggards of dispence,* (*expense) God send them soon a very pestilence! 47. The_Mirror_Has_Two_Faces_(1996)___2__13.wmv The_Wife_Of_Bath.wmv The_Nun's_Priest_Tale_(The_Canterbury_Tales).wmvmedieval marriage was a largely financial arrangement, involving a transfer of wealth from the bride's family to the groom. Does this fact make the Wife's account of her own marriages seem improbable? there is evidence that medieval law held wives in subordination to their husband. Should we view her not as a freethinker but as an outlaw? Finally, what of love? In medieval times, love seems to have had little place in marriage. How should this fact influence our response to the Wife's frequent emphasis on sexual appeal as a driving force in her relationships? The moral of the story seems to confirm her argument in the "Prologue," that wives should have authority over their husbands, but the proof of the moral seems to come through magic. Are we to take the story at face value, or is it, in the truest sense, a "fairy tale"? Does Chaucer in this way represent the Wife as seeing herself as the "loathly lady" waiting for some loving husband to unlock the beauty inside her?

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Изучение английского языка с нуля. Книги на английском языке для разных уровней

Beowulf (in English, for beginners)

Адаптированная для уровня beginner / для начинающих англосаксонская эпическая поэма Beowulf (Беовульф) – первое произведение английской литературы, дошедшее до нас в письменном виде. Поэмы была создана в конце VII — начале VIII века и написана на древнеанглийском языке. Действие поэмы происходит в Скандинавии. Это сказание о подвигах Беовульфа, одержавшего победу над чудовищами. Данный текст адаптирован Ю. Голицынским и взят из книги «Readings in English Classics» (данная книга более не издается и является букинистической).

Beowulf. Беовульф (первое произведение английской литературы)

As you know, in very old times people had no books. They could not. read or write. In their free time they gathered together to tell stories and sing songs. At that time there were men who walked about the country, and stopped now at one place, now at another. 3 They sang long songs about great heroes and great events. These men were called «bards». People loved to listen to their songs and stories.

Later, when some of the people learned to read and write, they wrote down many of these songs. One of them-was The Song of Beowulf, which tells about a brave and strong hero who fought for the good of the people.

A long, long time ago the king of Denmark was Hrothgar. He was brave, just and kind his people loved him. He built a large and beautiful palace for himself and his warriors. Men came from all parts of the country to look at the fine palace. Every evening many people gathered in the palace, and they ate and drank, told stories and sang songs, danced and laughed.

Not far from the palace there was a large lake. A great monster lived in that lake. His name was Grendel. Grendel heard the singing and laughing in Hrothgar’s palace every evening and did not like it. He was lonely in his lake and he was very angry with the warriors because they were making merry. He got more and more angry every day.

Late one night Grendel got out of his lake and went to Hrothgar’s palace. He soon came near it. It was still and dark inside, and Grendel went in. There were many warriors in the palace, but they were all asleep. Grendel killed one of the warriors and drank his blood. Then he killed another warrior and drank his blood, too. That night the monster killed thirty warriors and drank their blood. Then he took the bodies of the dead men and went back to his lake.

The next night Grendel came to the palace again. Again he killed thirty warriors, drank their blood and carried their dead bodies into the lake.

Night after night, month after month; winter after winter the terrible monster came to the palace and killed men. There was no laughing and singing now. The bravest and strongest warriors could do nothing against him. Their spears, arrows and swords could not kill Grendel. This went on for twelve years.

On the other side of the sea was the country of the Geats. There was a young man among the Geats whose name was Beowulf. He was very brave and strong. He was the strongest man in the whole country. He was stronger than thirty men. One day he heard about the terrible monster Grendel, who killed thirty warriors every night in Denmark. Beowulf wanted to help King Hrothgar. He found fourteen strong, brave warriors among his friends, got on a ship with them and sailed off across the sea. They sailed the whole night, and in the morning they came to Denmark.

When they got off the ship, they saw a man on a horse. He was one of King Hrothgar’s warriors. «Who are you and what are you doing here?» he asked them.

«We are warriors from the country of the Geats,» answered Beo­wulf. «We know about Grendel. We want to help you to fight the monster.»

The warrior took Beowulf and his friends to Hrothgar’s palace. King Hrothgar smiled when he saw the Geats.

«I am glad to see you and your friends, brave Beowulf,» he said, «but I must tell you that your task will not be easy. You must know that many warriors spent a night in the palace. They tried to kill the monster, but they are all dead now.»

«I am not afraid,» said Beowulf, «I shall stay in the palace for the night and meet Grendel. And I shall fight without sword or spear or arrows, because they won’t help against him.»

Night came. Everybody left the palace. Only Beowulf and his friends stayed in the palace. Beowulf told his fourteen friends to lie down and sleep. He himself waited for Grendel in the dark.

Grendel appeared in the middle of the night. He quickly entered the palace, killed one of the sleeping warriors and began to drink his blood, as he always did. But at that moment he saw Beowulf, and a terrible fight began. They fought for a long time. Grendel was very strong, but Beowulf was stronger. He tore off its arm. When Grendel received a fatal wound and howled. He ran out of the palace back to his lake and died there.

In the morning King Hrothgar and his men came to the palace. They looked with great surprise at Grendel’s arm, which was hanging from the ceiling in the middle of the palace. Then they went to the lake. The water of the lake was red with Grendel’s blood.

People from all parts of the country came to look at Beowulf and thank him. Everybody was very glad. Till late at night they talked, sang and laughed in the palace as before.

At night everybody went to sleep. But the troubles of Hrothgar and his men were not over. An ugly witch came out of the lake and quickly ran to the palace. She was Grendel’s mother. She ran into the palace, caught one of the warriors, killed him and carried him to the lake.

«I ask you to help me once more, brave Beowulf,» said Hrothgar.

«I shall gladly help you, King Hrothgar,» answered Beowulf. «Let us go to the lake at once. I shall kill this witch.»

They got on their horses and rode to the lake. When they reached it, they saw that the lake was not quiet and its water was black. They waited. It became cold and dark. The witch did not appear. The warriors did not know what to do. Then Beowulf got off his horse and jumped into the lake.

When his feet touched the bottom, the witch sprang on him and tried to kill him but she could not. Then Beowulf saw the witch’s cave and ran into it. And here he was very surprised. There was no water in the cave. In the middle of the floor there was a bright fire. In the light of the fire he saw the dead body of Grendel in a corner of the cave and a sword on the wall. He quickly took the sword and killed the witch with it. Then Beowulf took the magic sword and came out of the lake. His friends were happy to see him alive.

In the palace Beowulf told King Hrothgar and his warriors about his fight with the witch. King Hrothgar thanked Beowulf many times and gave him and his men a lot of presents. When Beowulf and his friends were going home, many people came to say good-bye to him and to thank him again and again.

  1. Why was Grendel angry with the warriors?
  2. Find sentences in the text to show how strong Beowulf was.
  3. How did Beowulf kill Grendel?
  4. Describe in detail the fight of Beowulf and the witch.
  5. Why did people write The Song of Beowulf, in your opinion?
  6. What heroes of Russian literature can you compare Beo­wulf with? Why?
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