africa essay

Contents

africa essay

Sub-Saharan Africa: Change and Continuity Essay Summaries Period 3

1 600-1450: Trade Routes and Their Impacts by Stephanie Lin

2 100-1450: Politics by Rebecca Lee-McFadden

3 1450-1750: Politics and Economics by Emma Loh

4 Sub-Saharan Africa’s Relationship to Global Trade Patterns – 1750 to the Present by Douglas Chee 5 1450-Present: Religion by LJ Cabutaje

6 1914-Present: Formation of National Identities by George Kitsios a using evidence from specific countries

Sub-Saharan Africa 600 -1450 Trade Routes and Their Impacts

Before the 600s, trade routes in Africa weren’t used nearly as much as they are today After 600s, long distance trade increased and increased social and cultural diffusion At the end of the 600s, the world saw the decline of the classical period The fall of the classical empires such as the Gupta and Han Empires and Rome allowed various religions to spread Before 600 CE, connections existed between Sub-Saharan Africa and civilized societies, but were limited Cultural diffusion before the 600s included Africanity and diffusion of Bantu languages As trade routes intensified, Arab traders could spread to previously unreachable areas using camels and caravans One of the key changes that occurred during this period was the influence and spread of Islamic religion and culture and the connection of West Africa with the Muslim World Trade also increased economic prosperity, such as in the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai Gold-salt trade between Ghana and Arab desert traders and the Mediterranean prospered considerably as Ghana had gold but no salt and the Mediterranean had salt but no gold Ghana’s king converted to Islam, led to better relations with the Islamic world Indian Ocean trade led to increased development of city-states such as Mogadishu and Sofala Slave trading increased

The Essay on Atlantic Slave Trade Africa African People

. color of their skin. The effects that the slave trade had on Africa were not all negative. Depending on what point of . 1900, there were 11, 698, 000 slaves exported from Africa. (Atlantic Slave trade, pg. 170) To understand the effects this had on . effects today? s societies in Africa. The overall net effect of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa could never be estimated unless you .

Much continuity accompanied these changes

Syncretic conversion, which is they kept some of their own beliefs while converting to a new religion such as intertwining Islam with animism and ancient folklore Many people were still devoted to Christianity

Nomads were still the “middlemen” between the east and west Same basic routes were still used for trade during this period Africans retained their sense of originality and culture

Evaluate the political changes and continuities over time in Sub Saharan Africa from years 100 to 1450. Thesis: Sub Saharan Africa went from being made up of small individual tribes to large, organized empires. The arrival of new religions also affected the laws and codes Sub Saharan Africans had to follow. Throughout these changes, one continuity was that religious beliefs still played an important part in the political structures.

-Smaller and decentralized tribes became larger, more organized empires.

During 100 CE and earlier, there did not exist organized governments. Most societies were clans and tribes ruled by a tribal leader. Some societies were hunter-gatherer ones. Unification really could not occur due to arid environments and culturally diverse regions.

Larger empires and kingdoms were able to rise because of an increase in interaction and trade between tribes. An increased production of crops and iron tools and artisan goods led to more trading. As tribes traded, some grew wealthier and more powerful. These tribes conquered others and took control of regional trade routes becoming more powerful. They then became larger kingdoms and societies.

Ghana and Great Zimbabwe were two examples of this. Their rise to power was due to the wealth earned from trading and controlling trade routes. Eastern City States like Zanzibar, Mombasa, and Sofala rose to power because of trading in the Indian Ocean Trading Route. -Religions like Islam and Christianity affected law codes

The Essay on French Fur Trade Trading Tribes Natives

. trading industry, which caused many problems between different European nations and different native tribes. Therefore, the trading of fur allowed early seven . they returned and began to trade with the Indians for furs in order to supply the European demands. The Natives and the . -1763, not only to decide who would control the fur trade, but also to designate a single major power in the .

Most of Sub-Saharan Africans followed animism. With the arrival of monotheistic religions like Christianity and Islam, law codes were altered. Mali, for example, was an Islamic state. The people under the Mali empire

had to follow Islamic law, shari’a and the Qur’an. The Kingdom of Aksum converted to Christianity under the king, Ezana. Ezana ruled his people under the beliefs and teachings of Christianity. Continuities:

– Religious beliefs continued to play a role in political structures and law codes

Whether the dominating religion was Islam, Christianity, or animism, it still affected how the particular society ran and the laws the people had to follow. Animism also affected tribes politically. Kings and tribal leaders were believed to be decedents of their gods. Religion was all people knew and was so heavily integrated in their lives,. Political structures and law codes were not an exception to this.

Prompt: The period of 1450 to 1750 witnessed important transformations in Africa. Trace significant changes and continuities in two of the following areas: social, economic, and political. Economics

Change: emergence and eventual domination of the transatlantic slave trade first interactions with Europeans

Portuguese and some African tribes created trade relations that were beneficial to both sides in gold, world markets. WHY

European production growth, e.g. Portugal’s sugar plantations profits went to Africa, most slaves were POWs

Continuity: the profitable trade of raw materials

15th C: gold, copper, cotton textiles, leather works

17th C: gold, ivory, timber

political alliances with European foreigners

1500s: some African kings were open to European religions (Christianity) allowed access to European firearms and association with advanced societies few were actually committed to Christianity due to dominant Muslim culture. 17th Century: kings profited from the slave trade, cooperative with

Europeans some kings lost power to the slave trade

15th C: some normal Africans started to be kidnapped for the slave trade Continuity: monarchies as the dominant governments which maintained power throughout Africa. forced Europeans to adhere to African trading customs.

The Essay on European Colonization and African American Development

. goal by acting as African puppet masters. The thingification of indigenous African people equates to European colonization in a way . better, and sought to unite separated Africans in the struggle for freedom. Africa for Africans, as this philosophy came to be . film The Magnificent African Cake, Africans tried to resist colonialism through peace offerings by free usage of religion, but in response .

collected expensive rents from European merchants.

prevented Europeans from claiming African territory

were not heavily influenced by Europeans.

** not all kings participated in European trade, and a majority of them did not.

Sub-Saharan Africa’s Relationship to Global Trade Patterns – 1750 to the Present

Sub-Saharan Africa is rich with raw materials – precious metals, animal products, plant oils. 1750s:

Independent African kingdoms exported gold, copper, ivory, vegetable oils, and animal pelts to various Western powers, in exchange for machine-made products. Lack of industrialization. Huge slave trade from 1750-1867, despite Great Britains attempted abolishment in 1808. Slaves utilized in Western colonies and plantations. Constant European presence and tight relationship in trade.

Scramble for Africa:

End of slave trade led to economic weakness, leaving African states vulnerable to the European imperialists. Peak of European’s constant influence.

New exports included diamonds and rubber.

Africa continued to be a global source for raw materials, due to their continued lack of industrialization. Post WWII:

Nationalistic movements brought independence from European powers, but left political/economic issues for the now decolonized states. Dependency on the delicate trade of cash crops, in addition to the lack of industrialization

and help for the now expelled European powers had led to economic backwardness in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Religious Changes and Continuities in Sub-Saharan Africa: 1450-Present:

Thesis: From 1450 to the present, Sub-Saharan Africa’s religious atmosphere has experienced many changes due to the exponential growth of such global religions as Christianity and Islam in the region, while it has also maintained religious continuities in its traditional and established beliefs and practices, by the usage of syncretism

There was a large growth in the spread of Islam throughout the region. Because of the way that cultural diffusion occurred throughout various trade routes, Islam easily spread throughout the region and integrated into the cultures of local tribes, without the need for conquest from the leaders. From 1900 to the present, it grew exponentially, from a few million to more than 300 million, comprising 15% of the world’s Islamic population. Christianity was the other global religion that grew exponentially during this time period. It was first introduced in the 15th century by Portuguese Catholic missionaries who wanted to convert the natives to their faith. Similarly to Islam, in the 20th century, the Christian population in Sub-Saharan Africa rose up, eventually totaling over 470 million, effectively making up more than 20% of the world’s Christian population. This occurred due to the heavy anti-slavery sentiment and the scramble for Africa which occurred in this time period.

The Essay on Term African Slave Trade

. Unequal Partnership Between Africans and Europeans."Many things remain uncertain about the slave trade and its consequences for Africa, but the general . to cultivate the land. Certainly, many African rulers acquiesced in the European slave trade for what they considered to be . manner of recruitment of captives in Africa. In order to whitewash the European slave trade, they find it convenient to .

Despite the changes, the people of this region were still able to adhere to their long-time and ancient beliefs and traditions. Many still practice animism, or the belief in the spirits of nature, and practice rituals such as voodoo. They were able to continue because of the tolerance of the major

global religions and also because of their practice of syncretism, in which they incorporated the local religions with these global religions. One last continuity was Christianity in Ethiopia, where the religion was indigenous and was there from the 4th Century CE.

-Pre WWII, Sub Saharan Africa witnesses significant changes in the identities of its nations. Largely fueled as a reaction to separatist movements from European Colonial structures, and a recent surge in nationalism -Many strive towards self governed rule with dreams of liberation influenced by fighting in the name of freedom in the 2nd World War Changes:

-Gold Coast was hot bed of nationalism after WWII, desire for British to allow self rule -Took first step through African representation in council, but not enough -Many had aspirations for Ghana to become the African United States -Ambitious Goal expanded in 1947, Kwame Nkrumah starts series of boycotts, strikes, etc -By 1957, Gold Coast receives full independence, renamed Ghana -Nkrumah 1st president, creates proactive reforms

The Essay on The Brazilian Independence Movement

. which lead them to independence. One of these movements was the Brazilian independence movement. The Brazilian independence movement was one of the . Portugal began to settle in Brazil and started establishing large sugar cane plantations. “Brazilian sugar, sold in . Europe, brought wealth to Portugal.”(Galloway) Large settlements like Recife, Salvador, and Sao Vicente were created .

-Also governed from a far by the British

-Large amounts of free land in Northern Highlands believed by the Native kenyans their own land with their own rights; not some prize for Britain. -Movement for Kenyan Independence begins, seeded in nationalism, by Joma Kenyatta, who like others, believed “Africa can only advance to a higher level if he is free to express himself…”, meaning free from external rule -Formation of Mau Mau Guerilla group, more violent approach toward Kenyan national identity, killing 10,000 Africans and 100 settlers in the process -Eventually, Kenya gains independence in 1963

-One of largest things that stayed the same was the pattern of violence and oppression experienced in inter and intercommunication of African native groups/future nations -Nigeria

-Key example, newborn nation that adopts a federal system

-Borders did not pay attention to the cultural tensions it put in place among the civilians, would provoke a large amount of controversy -Ultimately leads to a full out civil war breaking loose, amongst a number of ethnic groups forced to live together with no prior notice -Horrible level of instability within the government, provoking martial law on some areas. -Outcome of a movement intended to liberate resulted in unimaginable violence, and the replacement of one oppressive, ignorant government, with a more familiar one

-Obtains partial independence from Great Britain by 1931, allowing for self government (sorta) -White supremacy ends up taking over the reigns immediately however policies of apartheid run rampant for the next couple of decades -Formation and barring of the African National Congress (ANC)

-Misrepresentation in laws/distribution of land

-South Africans are 75% of population, but only allowed on 13% of land (slum land too!) -ANC and other pro South African Native movements decide to go with a more violent route, yet many end up killed, beaten, or jailed in the 70s and 80s, especially after demonstrations in 1977. -Struggle for accurate democracy at hand, no room for reform, and realization of equality not realized until later on (Nelson Mandela) -Black citizens grossly mistreated in their own homeland, reign of violence and terror overstays its welcome

The Term Paper on African American Students Black Group

. America. The story revolves around the lives of a group of young African American males in Compton, California. These characters are . is distingu sed, however, by her sex and her fierce independence. She is usually big fat and cantankerous. The Tragic . Questioning the Media, Ash Corea explains "stereotypes seek to portray African-Americans as a "problem" in an otherwise harmonious country." .

Atlantic Slave Trade Africa African People

. African culture when it happened but also it effects today? s societies in Africa. The overall net effect of the Atlantic Slave Trade . . One other benefit from the Slave trade would be that the African Culture was spread to totally different continents .

. as that may be nourished by African Religion and as it may in turn contribute to African Religion itself. A proverb from Ghana . lost or changed or later arrived message are very widespread in eastern, southern and parts of western Africa. The carrier .

West African Change & Continuity

. trade. Muslim merchants brought Islam into West Africa and it spreads throughout the rest of Africa. Many aspects of African religion . Europeans brought changes to this social system as well as many other areas of African life and culture. European .

Missionaries In Africa Africans People African

. African people to Christianity, these European Missionaries also translated the Bible into several African . Africa, eleven in southern Africa, five in eastern Africa . Africans held true to their own traditions, there own religion . to help trade flourish, .

History in Africa Before Europeans

. , philosophy, writing and religion were all borrowed from African and Semitic sources. By . of Africa not having a history before Europeans were involved in Africa because . kingdoms mined for gold and traded cattle. Significant events were recorded .

African Food Africa Africans Popular

. continent, and a marinade of cultures, colonies, trade routes, and history. Africa cuisine is as broad as the continent, from . habits and examine the cultural dining of West Africa to East Africa. Africans like most of the world outside of American .

December 23, 2008

When students study civilizations, economics, healthcare or any other topic – most of the examples they get is the African countries. Unfortunately African countries have the lowest life level and are forced to survive in this environment. Hence, there are situations when a student is asked to write an Africa essay, Africa term paper, Africa research paper and Africa dissertation.

In order to succeed in this rather easy assignment – a student has to conduct a research on the African environment according to his topic. For example, if he needs to write a research paper on African healthcare – he needs to possess some information on the conditions they live in, and what actions are made to increase the level of life in Africa.

African society is struggling to survive, and we need to acknowledge that. So when writing an Africa essay, or Africa term paper – we have to mention that we realize their horrible environment, and are willing to help them overcome their difficulties. The assistance and help actions which are conducted right now are also worth mentioning.

A good hypothesis for the Africa research paper, Africa dissertation etc should be stressed on the desire to help Africa, increase their level of life and provide economic, healthcare assistance and aid. Also you can implement elements of an cause and effect essay, and analyze the actions that are made to improve the African society, and what impact does it have on countries outside of Africa.

Feel free to express your own, personal opinion on Africa, and how others should provide help in Africa. May be you have your own way to assist them besides sending money, food and clothes. Feel free to investigate and provide novelty solutions.

Your Africa paper is a place where you can implement your creativity and imagination. Your professor will surely value your desire to add something to the things which are done right now, and your desire to make the world a better place.

CustomWritings.com can write your Africa essay and Africa research paper for you. If you require assistance in any topic concerning Africa – you can easily ask CustomWritings.com for help. We guarantee that we will have an expert write your paper, and make sure he delivers a top quality Africa paper. Buy essay on Africa from our company now.

Here is a list of the most popular essay topics on Africa:

1. Apartide in South Africa

2. The Prospect of Direct Investment in South Africa

3. HIV and Aids in Africa: A Growing Epidemic

4. Why was Africa colonised in the years 1870-1914?

5. Famine in Africa

6. Racism In South Africa

7. Conflict Prevention in Africa: expectations with regard to the African Union

8. Etiology and control of common scab on potatoes in South Africa

9. Cause and Effect of Imperialism in Africa in the 19th Century

10. Colonialism in 20th Century Africa: To speak of collaborating with and others as resisting the colonial incursion is to blur reality

11. Should the study of African politics be approached differently to the study of politics in the West?

12. The African Bushmeat Crisis

13. African History and Culture

14. Comparison of African Empires in Islam

15. A Slave Market in Africa

16. African Trade

17. Floor Crossing in South Africa

18. Art and Music of sub-Saharan Africa

19. African Presence in Ancient America

20. The Nuba Tribe of Africa

21. Voodoo: From Africa to New Orleans

22. Indeginous African theatre (Barney Simon)

The Effects of Imperialism in Africa Essay

Losing their countries and independence, Africa was being transformed by the Europeans. Christian missionaries were brought in from Europe to enlighten Africa. Spreading Christianity was seen as a positive impact by the Europeans, however it was changing Africans when they didn’t want to be. At this time, Europe was starting to introduce more technology into the African culture. Traditional European schools were built, along with churches, and other infrastructures the Africans had never been exposed to. The African youth would never understand and practice the century old traditions because of the Europeans changing the norms and customs. These customs were broken down when traditional authority figures were replaced. Instead of traditional tribe

Spread of European Imperialism in Africa Essay

height of Imperialism. European countries became more and more engaged in the “Scramble for Africa”. Nations including Britain, Spain, France, Portugal, Belgium, and Germany raced to conquer lands in Africa. Imperialism in Africa had many negative and positive effects on the conquered country. It brought modernized technology and certain reforms, while it also introduced racist laws, enforced harsh labors, and ruined the economies of many colonies. Although European imperialism in Africa brought modernized…

The Effects of European Imperialism on Africa Essay

the extent to which a need for expansion took hold of Europe is the Scramble for Africa -- an event that can be considered a prominent display of active imperialism. During the turn of the 20th century, Africa was divided up by the major imperialistic powers of Europe (as well as some non-European countries). France, Germany and the United Kingdom were the primary imperialist powers involved in the Scramble for Africa, with 15%, 9% and 30% of the continent being allotted to them respectively; each…

The Effects of the Berlin Conference on Africa Essay

The Berlin Conference of 1884 peacefully divided Africa between world leaders. The conference, also known as the Congo Conference, looked at Africa as a great source of wealth in many areas to be shared among the participating countries. The division that took place at no time had at interest the people of Africa. By the time Africa regained its freedom in the 1950’s most areas had developed severe political and racial division. The result of this turbulence and division is the occurrence of…

European Imperialism in Africa Essay

European Imperialism in Africa As a whole, Africa was ruined by the Europeans’ greed during the early 1900’s. The European countries were very strong nationalists and they came together and decided to show their superiority by imperializing other continents and countries rather than fight with each other. They chose Africa as the best place to imperialize because of its natural resources and availability. This is what introduced the Berlin Conference. At this meeting, representatives from Great…

Negative Affects of Imperialism in Africa in the 19th Century

history, imperialism by one nation on another has had many negative influences on the nation being colonized. The legacy of European imperialism in Africa in the 19th century was negative. Imperialism negatively affected Africa politically, economically, and culturally. In terms of political changes, European imperialism negatively affected Africa. Firstly, European colonization created enormous conflict between colonists and the African people. African resistance to “The Scramble for Africa” lead…

Essay Imperialism: Great Britain in Africa

every country in Africa was imperialized by other countries in Europe. To imperialize is to conquer another country, whether it be in the means of politics, economics and/or culture, and control that land. The aftermath for the imperialized country was either beneficial or harmful. The amount of African countries that a European country imperialized varied. Great Britain imperialized fifteen countries in Africa, including Egypt in 1882, Sierra Leone in 1808, and the Union of South Africa in 1910. Although…

The Economic Effects of the Slave Trade on Africa, Britain, and America

cross the Atlantic in an empty ship. This led to the triangle trade. In the triangle trade, crops like cotton, tobacco, and sugar from America were transported to England. From England textiles, rum and manufactured goods were transported to Africa. Then from Africa, slaves were transported to the Americas. Although these slaves were real human beings they were referred to as “cargo” and transported as such. There would be about 200 slaves in a single ship’s hold. In these holds, life was living hell…

The Effects of Imperialism in Africa Essay

Throughout history, imperialism has led countries to extend their rule over weaker countries and then colonized those countries to expand their own power. Imperialism allows the ruling countries to use the weaker countries for their resources. Colonizing other countries would then lead to growth and a better reputation for the dominating country. There are many examples of imperialism throughout European history. When many European countries “scrambled” for Africa, it seemed as though Africa had no say in…

British Imperialism in India and Sub-Saharan Africa Between 1750 and 1914

1900s, a wave of imperialism swept over Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The Western nations, pursuing new raw materials, established control, and became very powerful. The non-Western world obtained many benefits, such as industrialization and public education. While imperialism proved beneficial, it also resulted in warfare, racism, economic discrimination, and slavery. Both India and sub-Saharan Africa were affected by European imperialism. Between 1750 and 1914, European imperialism in India and…

Essay about The Effects of Western Imperialism on China and Japan

The Effects of Western Imperialism on China and Japan China and Japan had very different experiences with Western Imperialism . Their reactions to western interference would lay a foundation for their destiny in a world that was rapidly progressing forward , leaving the traditional world behind . China viewed themselves as totally self sufficient , superior , and the only truly civilized land in a barbarous world. They were inward looking and were encouraged by the conservative…

Sub-Saharan Africa: Change and Continuity Essay Summaries Period 3

1 600-1450: Trade Routes and Their Impacts by Stephanie Lin

2 100-1450: Politics by Rebecca Lee-McFadden

3 1450-1750: Politics and Economics by Emma Loh

4 Sub-Saharan Africa’s Relationship to Global Trade Patterns – 1750 to the Present by Douglas Chee 5 1450-Present: Religion by LJ Cabutaje

6 1914-Present: Formation of National Identities by George Kitsios a using evidence from specific countries

Sub-Saharan Africa 600 -1450 Trade Routes and Their Impacts

Before the 600s, trade routes in Africa weren’t used nearly as much as they are today After 600s, long distance trade increased and increased social and cultural diffusion At the end of the 600s, the world saw the decline of the classical period The fall of the classical empires such as the Gupta and Han Empires and Rome allowed various religions to spread Before 600 CE, connections existed between Sub-Saharan Africa and civilized societies, but were limited Cultural diffusion before the 600s included Africanity and diffusion of Bantu languages As trade routes intensified, Arab traders could spread to previously unreachable areas using camels and caravans One of the key changes that occurred during this period was the influence and spread of Islamic religion and culture and the connection of West Africa with the Muslim World Trade also increased economic prosperity, such as in the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai Gold-salt trade between Ghana and Arab desert traders and the Mediterranean prospered considerably as Ghana had gold but no salt and the Mediterranean had salt but no gold Ghana’s king converted to Islam, led to better relations with the Islamic world Indian Ocean trade led to increased development of city-states such as Mogadishu and Sofala Slave trading increased

Much continuity accompanied these changes

Syncretic conversion, which is they kept some of their own beliefs while converting to a new religion such as intertwining Islam with animism and ancient folklore Many people were still devoted to Christianity

Nomads were still the “middlemen” between the east and west Same basic routes were still used for trade during this period Africans retained their sense of originality and culture

Evaluate the political changes and continuities over time in Sub Saharan Africa from years 100 to 1450. Thesis: Sub Saharan Africa went from being made up of small individual tribes to large, organized empires. The arrival of new religions also affected the laws and codes Sub Saharan Africans had to follow. Throughout these changes, one continuity was that religious beliefs still played an important part in the political structures.

-Smaller and decentralized tribes became larger, more organized empires.

During 100 CE and earlier, there did not exist organized governments. Most societies were clans and tribes ruled by a tribal leader. Some societies were hunter-gatherer ones. Unification really could not occur due to arid environments and culturally diverse regions.

Larger empires and kingdoms were able to rise because of an increase in interaction and trade between tribes. An increased production of crops and iron tools and artisan goods led to more trading. As tribes traded, some grew wealthier and more powerful. These tribes conquered others and took control of regional trade routes becoming more powerful. They then became larger kingdoms and societies.

Ghana and Great Zimbabwe were two examples of this. Their rise to power was due to the wealth earned from trading and controlling trade routes. Eastern City States like Zanzibar, Mombasa, and Sofala rose to power because of trading in the Indian Ocean Trading Route. -Religions like Islam and Christianity affected law codes

Most of Sub-Saharan Africans followed animism. With the arrival of monotheistic religions like Christianity and Islam, law codes were altered. Mali, for example, was an Islamic state. The people under the Mali empire

had to follow Islamic law, shari’a and the Qur’an. The Kingdom of Aksum converted to Christianity under the king, Ezana. Ezana ruled his people under the beliefs and teachings of Christianity. Continuities:

– Religious beliefs continued to play a role in political structures and law codes

Whether the dominating religion was Islam, Christianity, or animism, it still affected how the particular society ran and the laws the people had to follow. Animism also affected tribes politically. Kings and tribal leaders were believed to be decedents of their gods. Religion was all people knew and was so heavily integrated in their lives,. Political structures and law codes were not an exception to this.

Prompt: The period of 1450 to 1750 witnessed important transformations in Africa. Trace significant changes and continuities in two of the following areas: social, economic, and political. Economics

Change: emergence and eventual domination of the transatlantic slave trade first interactions with Europeans

Portuguese and some African tribes created trade relations that were beneficial to both sides in gold, world markets. WHY

European production growth, e.g. Portugal’s sugar plantations profits went to Africa, most slaves were POWs

Continuity: the profitable trade of raw materials

15th C: gold, copper, cotton textiles, leather works

17th C: gold, ivory, timber

political alliances with European foreigners

1500s: some African kings were open to European religions (Christianity) allowed access to European firearms and association with advanced societies few were actually committed to Christianity due to dominant Muslim culture. 17th Century: kings profited from the slave trade, cooperative with

Europeans some kings lost power to the slave trade

15th C: some normal Africans started to be kidnapped for the slave trade Continuity: monarchies as the dominant governments which maintained power throughout Africa. forced Europeans to adhere to African trading customs.

collected expensive rents from European merchants.

prevented Europeans from claiming African territory

were not heavily influenced by Europeans.

** not all kings participated in European trade, and a majority of them did not.

Sub-Saharan Africa’s Relationship to Global Trade Patterns – 1750 to the Present

Sub-Saharan Africa is rich with raw materials – precious metals, animal products, plant oils. 1750s:

Independent African kingdoms exported gold, copper, ivory, vegetable oils, and animal pelts to various Western powers, in exchange for machine-made products. Lack of industrialization. Huge slave trade from 1750-1867, despite Great Britains attempted abolishment in 1808. Slaves utilized in Western colonies and plantations. Constant European presence and tight relationship in trade.

Scramble for Africa:

End of slave trade led to economic weakness, leaving African states vulnerable to the European imperialists. Peak of European’s constant influence.

New exports included diamonds and rubber.

Africa continued to be a global source for raw materials, due to their continued lack of industrialization. Post WWII:

Nationalistic movements brought independence from European powers, but left political/economic issues for the now decolonized states. Dependency on the delicate trade of cash crops, in addition to the lack of industrialization

and help for the now expelled European powers had led to economic backwardness in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Religious Changes and Continuities in Sub-Saharan Africa: 1450-Present:

Thesis: From 1450 to the present, Sub-Saharan Africa’s religious atmosphere has experienced many changes due to the exponential growth of such global religions as Christianity and Islam in the region, while it has also maintained religious continuities in its traditional and established beliefs and practices, by the usage of syncretism

Changes and Analysis:

There was a large growth in the spread of Islam throughout the region. Because of the way that cultural diffusion occurred throughout various trade routes, Islam easily spread throughout the region and integrated into the cultures of local tribes, without the need for conquest from the leaders. From 1900 to the present, it grew exponentially, from a few million to more than 300 million, comprising 15% of the world’s Islamic population. Christianity was the other global religion that grew exponentially during this time period. It was first introduced in the 15th century by Portuguese Catholic missionaries who wanted to convert the natives to their faith. Similarly to Islam, in the 20th century, the Christian population in Sub-Saharan Africa rose up, eventually totaling over 470 million, effectively making up more than 20% of the world’s Christian population. This occurred due to the heavy anti-slavery sentiment and the scramble for Africa which occurred in this time period.

Continuities and Analysis:

Despite the changes, the people of this region were still able to adhere to their long-time and ancient beliefs and traditions. Many still practice animism, or the belief in the spirits of nature, and practice rituals such as voodoo. They were able to continue because of the tolerance of the major

global religions and also because of their practice of syncretism, in which they incorporated the local religions with these global religions. One last continuity was Christianity in Ethiopia, where the religion was indigenous and was there from the 4th Century CE.

-Pre WWII, Sub Saharan Africa witnesses significant changes in the identities of its nations. Largely fueled as a reaction to separatist movements from European Colonial structures, and a recent surge in nationalism -Many strive towards self governed rule with dreams of liberation influenced by fighting in the name of freedom in the 2nd World War Changes:

-Gold Coast was hot bed of nationalism after WWII, desire for British to allow self rule -Took first step through African representation in council, but not enough -Many had aspirations for Ghana to become the African United States -Ambitious Goal expanded in 1947, Kwame Nkrumah starts series of boycotts, strikes, etc -By 1957, Gold Coast receives full independence, renamed Ghana -Nkrumah 1st president, creates proactive reforms

-Also governed from a far by the British

-Large amounts of free land in Northern Highlands believed by the Native kenyans their own land with their own rights; not some prize for Britain. -Movement for Kenyan Independence begins, seeded in nationalism, by Joma Kenyatta, who like others, believed “Africa can only advance to a higher level if he is free to express himself…”, meaning free from external rule -Formation of Mau Mau Guerilla group, more violent approach toward Kenyan national identity, killing 10,000 Africans and 100 settlers in the process -Eventually, Kenya gains independence in 1963

-One of largest things that stayed the same was the pattern of violence and oppression experienced in inter and intercommunication of African native groups/future nations -Nigeria

-Key example, newborn nation that adopts a federal system

-Borders did not pay attention to the cultural tensions it put in place among the civilians, would provoke a large amount of controversy -Ultimately leads to a full out civil war breaking loose, amongst a number of ethnic groups forced to live together with no prior notice -Horrible level of instability within the government, provoking martial law on some areas. -Outcome of a movement intended to liberate resulted in unimaginable violence, and the replacement of one oppressive, ignorant government, with a more familiar one

-Obtains partial independence from Great Britain by 1931, allowing for self government (sorta) -White supremacy ends up taking over the reigns immediately however policies of apartheid run rampant for the next couple of decades -Formation and barring of the African National Congress (ANC)

-Misrepresentation in laws/distribution of land

-South Africans are 75% of population, but only allowed on 13% of land (slum land too!) -ANC and other pro South African Native movements decide to go with a more violent route, yet many end up killed, beaten, or jailed in the 70s and 80s, especially after demonstrations in 1977. -Struggle for accurate democracy at hand, no room for reform, and realization of equality not realized until later on (Nelson Mandela) -Black citizens grossly mistreated in their own homeland, reign of violence and terror overstays its welcome

The nature of the historical evidence has already become one of the most widely discussed issues in the contemporary historic and history related sciences. This research is setting an aim to investigate the different periods of African history, its connection with the Asia, and development of different cultures (Carfagen, Kush, Axum & Great Zimbabwe in particular). With the help the different methodologies (mainly qualitative and quantitative evaluation approach would be used in this research), the academic literature review, discussion and analysis there would be revealed the important periods of African history and the impact they provided on the whole continent

Kush and Axum Kingdoms, Their Impact in Linkage Asia to the West?

Kush (sometimes referred to as Meroл kingdom) was an ancient kingdom that was located in the north part of contemporary Republic of Sudan. It was formed nearly 1070. The first communities were found in Nubia approximately 3100-2890 BC. Ancient Egypt strongly impacted the formation of Kush, but they won independence nearly at 780 — 755 BC. Speaking about the development and impact of Kush civilization on African history it should be noted that it is still poorly investigated and lacks information (in particular they invented their own writing system based on Egyptian, but it still remain undecrypted). There could hardly found evidence about the impact this culture had on connections between the Asia and West, as it developed quite independently and did not had a significant impact on any other African cultures. Thus it would be essential to suppose that it had almost no impact on the development the connections between the East and the West. They traded with the Greek merchants and that is probably the major connection they had to the Western civilization. In 350 AD it was captured by Axum kingdom.

In the 3rd – 4th centuries AD Axum raised and dominated in the North-East Africa as well as on the Red Sea. In the 4th century there was started a competition with Byzantine Empire.

Under the rule of King Ezana Axum was a vast territory stretched along the Red Sea and part of Yemen also belonged to it. It was located on major trade routes from Egypt, Byzantine Empire, Syria, Iran, Iraq, India and China. Trading actively developed in Axum. The major interests were slaves, gold, ivory, aroma oils, emeralds, and African animals and leather. It should be noted that when the Islam was born Axum actively participated in protection the first Muslims. Muhammad sent to Axum embassy, ​​seeking for support and protection from the local king. Being highly oppressed some of them moved to Axum and found their not only a shelter, but support.

These two important facts – competition with Byzantine Empire and protection of the first Muslims gave a significant push to establishing linkage between the West and the East, especially if we take into consideration the fact that the major trading roots from the East to the West were crossing in Axum

The Carthaginians – Africans, Semites or mercenaries?

Carthage could hardly be referred to as the cradle of the African culture as it was founded by Phoenician Immigrants at 814 BC. These first Phoenicians arrived from the city Tyre and later established hegemony all over the Northern Africa, what it interesting only on the territories, which were close to the sea shores: “It is now thought that Carthage might have actually been established to act as a larger civic centre for other smaller Phoenician colonies in the region. It certainly grew quickly. Although archaeologists are yet to locate any of the important public buildings or harbours from that early period, current evidence indicates that the littoral plain began to fill up with a densely packed network of dwellings made of sun-dried bricks laid out on streets with wells, gardens and squares, all situated on a fairly regular plan that ran parallel to the shoreline.” It would be important to note that as the settlement was founded by the immigrants, thus it could not referred as purely African, as the founders were not born in Africa and that is the settlement of the nation, which was finally formed in East Asia. That is why the Carthaginians could hardly be referred as the Africans, as they have arrived there, when the African nationalities were actually formed

It should be important to note that the Phoenician nation has never performed as mercenaries, as their major business was dealing with the merchant operations and became very successful in this area. It should be noted that even Carthage was highly developed and gave birth to such outstanding people as Hannibal; they have never had strong regular army and paid the military mercenaries to protect their rich city, which developed very quickly and required quite a big army to protect the merchants from the neighbors who wanted to capture this prosperous land. The Carthaginian also developed manufacturing: “By the mid-seventh century BC Carthage had become a major manufacturer itself through the establishment of an industrial area just outside the city walls, with potter’s kilns and workshops for purple dye production and metalworking. Carthage now became a major manufacturer of terracotta figurines, masks, jewellery, delicately carved ivories and decorated ostrich eggs, which were then exported throughout the western Phoenician colonies.” And this also made them to protect themselves and hire those who were ready to fight for Carthage. That is why we can not refer to Carthaginians as the mercenaries, as they hired such people themselves for the protection, but never got involved in military activity in mass, as their major occupation was merchant.

Probably to call the Carthaginians Semites would be not purely the right thing. But the language they invented and their cultural heritage are very close to the Semites. They lived close to the Ancient Jews and actually appeared in many Biblical stories. That is why if we take into consideration the roots of the Carthaginians it would be proper to call them the Semites rather than Africans, as even they mixed a lot with the different other nations they have never lost their national identity and their cultural roots were highly honored, even they became an independent state on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Their culture and heritage left after him has more close connection to the land they came from (the Semite land actually) than to the land they dwelled in for a long time, forming the new state and prosperous nation. Personally I support the vision to refer Carthaginians more like Semite than African.

Great Zimbabwe – who built it?

Great Zimbabwe is the name given to the stone ruins of an ancient South African city, located Zimbabwe.

It is considered that Great Zimbabwe was the major cultural and spiritual city of the Ancient nation Shona (they belonged to Bantu). The city was founded approx. 1130 AD and existed during the period last approximately two or three centuries. The investigators, researching this period in African history came to the conclusion that the city was the capital of the Ancient African Kingdom – the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This empire stretched upon the territory, which is currently, located within the boundaries of the contemporary countries Zimbabwe (which takes its name from the Ancient State and the city itself) and Mozambique. They traded with the other countries, which were located nearby and used ports (one of the best known is Sofala in the south of the Zambezi delta) to transfer the goods. The city was actually divided into two districts. The vast majority of the city dwellers (there were at least ten thousand people) lived in thatched huts; and the local nobility was living in the very special areas, which were separated from the rest of the city with some kind fence. Most of the architectural structures, which were erected in the Great Zimbabwe are the stone towers, monoliths and altars. That proves the hypothesis about sanctity of the sanctity of the city as they were designed for praying: “Similarly, one n’anga (traditional healer) and dancer who regularly performed for tourists within the ruins, described Great Zimbabwe as a place where people used to come to be healed”. The word “Zimbabwe” in addition to the basic meaning has the following one, which could be translated as the “Stone Houses”, and also “the house of worship.” Basically there prayed to the gods, who were “responsible” for the rain, and that is why these gods determined the good harvest. The chief god of the local tribe was so called the creator – Mwari, but this idea is found doubtful by historians: “The idea that Great Zimbabwe was once a previous centre for the cult Mwari has been dismissed by some academic historians. Yet this view is very much alive and gaining ground across Zimbabwe today. Local actors draw upon and engage with wider discourses on Great Zimbabwe’s sacredness and national significance in a politicized manner, deploying them in claims and disputes. Therefore, most members of the Mugabe and”. Mbire tribe also worshiped mbondoro – the spirits of the former dead monarchs. In the Great Zimbabwe Shona people lived until the beginning of the 19th century.

In 1928-1929 the ruins of Great Zimbabwe found and investigated by British archaeologist Gertrude Caton – Thompson, who worked in Africa for many years and in particular investigated the city. She claimed that the ruins have directly African origin. Previously, many researchers believed that the Africans, who were the majority on the continent, could not create such a magnificent structure, so the archaeologist John T. Bent claimed that the city built by the Phoenicians or even the Arabs and later captured by the Africans.

Thus it would be important to noted that the supportive evidence is for the African roots of the architects, who created the city, but still the question would require more investigation

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